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Simple Tamil words to know while travelling in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is a land that is very different from its neighbours in terms of cultural and traditional aspects. The language is much more deeply sewn into the culture and hence though English is widely understood, it certainly does help to know a few words in Tamil. The Tamil culture incorporates a sense of respect in the language and is spoken in a very polite frame. Tamil is one of the oldest surviving classical languages of the world. Here are few basic words that are good to know:
- Nandri: The word means ‘thank you’ and should be said with a slightly long ‘dree’ sound in the end. You could add the word ‘romba’ before ‘nandri’ and it would mean ‘thank you very much’.
- Evvalavu: It means ‘how much?’. This is a very handy word to remember as you go street shopping.
- Enge: It is a question that means ‘where’. This would be a very helpful world as you ask for directions.
- Kudunga: It means ‘please give’. The actual word is just ‘kudu’ , but the ‘nga’ is added to denote respect. This word can used while you order food, or just generally whenever you want something. As an example, saying ‘Coffee kudunga’ means that you are requesting for a coffee with all the due respect.
- Annai: Though the original meaning of the word means ‘elder brother’, it is a very socially accepted way of addressing men in general. It is the usual word chosen by many to address a stranger in the street.
- Saappaaadu/Thanni: The words mean food and drink respectively.
- Vanakkam: A greeting suited for any time of the day. For ‘good morning’, a prefix ‘kaalai’ is to be added to make it ‘kaalai vanakkam’ and for ‘good evening’, the equivalent is ‘maalai vanakkam’.
- Vendaam: This means ‘no’. This will turn out to be especially useful a word if you are in the streets and flea markets and someone is trying to sell you something you don’t want.
The Madurai dialect almost sounds as if the Tamil is sung! It is a very Madurai thing. The Nellai dialect is different too and the dialects keep on changing throughout the state. There is a distinct way the locals stretch and emphasize on some syllables to convey meaning. You could do some research online on the proper pronunciation of these words or you could even get our staff to help you out while you are staying with us at The Sangam Hotel, and perhaps even pick up a few more so that you can have a fun time communicating in the classic language of Tamil!
Sangam Hotels offer brilliant possibilities of experiencing Tamil Nadu. For booking and more, please visit https://sangamhotels.com
Tamil (; தமிழ்Tamiḻ[t̪amiɻ], pronunciation (help·info)) is a Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of South Asia. Tamil is an official language of the sovereign nations of Sri Lanka and Singapore, the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, and the Union Territory of Puducherry. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is also spoken by the Tamil diaspora found in many countries, including Malaysia, Myanmar, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia and Mauritius. Tamil is also natively spoken by Sri Lankan Moors.
One of 22 scheduled languages in the Constitution of India, Tamil was the first to be classified as a classical language of India and is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.A. K. Ramanujan described it as "the only language of contemporary India which is recognizably continuous with a classical past." The variety and quality of classical Tamil literature has led to it being described as "one of the great classical traditions and literatures of the world".
A recorded Tamil literature has been documented for over 2000 years. The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca. 300 BC – AD 300. It has the oldest extant literature among Dravidian languages. The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and 'hero stones' date from around the 3rd century BC. More than 55% of the epigraphical inscriptions (about 55,000) found by the Archaeological Survey of India are in the Tamil language.Tamil language inscriptions written in Brahmi script have been discovered in Sri Lanka and on trade goods in Thailand and Egypt. The two earliest manuscripts from India, acknowledged and registered by the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 and 2005, were written in Tamil.
In 1578, Portuguese Christian missionaries published a Tamil prayer book in old Tamil script named Thambiran Vanakkam, thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published. The Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, was one of the earliest dictionaries published in Indian languages. According to a 2001 survey, there were 1,863 newspapers published in Tamil, of which 353 were dailies.
Main article: Dravidian languages
Tamil belongs to the southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of around 26 languages native to the Indian subcontinent. It is also classified as being part of a Tamil language family that, alongside Tamil proper, includes the languages of about 35 ethno-linguistic groups such as the Irula and Yerukula languages (see SIL Ethnologue).
The closest major relative of Tamil is Malayalam; the two began diverging around the 9th century AD. Although many of the differences between Tamil and Malayalam demonstrate a pre-historic split of the western dialect, the process of separation into a distinct language, Malayalam, was not completed until sometime in the 13th or 14th century.
According to linguists like Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Tamil, as a Dravidian language, descends from Proto-Dravidian, a proto-language. Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were of the culture associated with the Neolithic complexes of South India. The earliest epigraphic attestations of Tamil are generally taken to have been written from the 2nd century BC.
Among Indian languages, Tamil has the most ancient non-Sanskritic Indian literature. Scholars categorise the attested history of the language into three periods: Old Tamil (300 BC–AD 700), Middle Tamil (700–1600) and Modern Tamil (1600–present). In November 2007, an excavation at Quseir-al-Qadim revealed Egyptian pottery dating back to first century BC with ancient Tamil Brahmi inscriptions. There are a number of apparent Tamil loanwords in Biblical Hebrew dating to before 500 BC, the oldest attestation of the language.John Guy states that Tamil was the lingua franca for early maritime traders from India.
According to Hindu legend, Tamil or in personification form Tamil Thāi (Mother Tamil) was created by Lord Shiva. Murugan, revered as the Tamil God, along with sage Agastya, brought it to the people.
The earliest extant Tamil literary works and their commentaries celebrate the Pandiyan Kings for the organization of long-termed Tamil Sangams, which researched, developed and made amendments in Tamil language. Even though the name of the language which was developed by these Tamil Sangams is mentioned as Tamil, the period when the name "Tamil" came to be applied to the language is unclear, as is the precise etymology of the name. The earliest attested use of the name is found in Tholkappiyam, which is dated as early as late 2nd century BC.
The Samavayanga Sutra dated to the 3rd century BC contains a reference to a Tamil script named 'Damili'.
Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miḻ > tam-iḻ "self-speak", or "one's own speech".Kamil Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iḻ, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", and "-iḻ" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiḻ < tam-iḻ < *tav-iḻ < *tak-iḻ, meaning in origin "the proper process (of speaking)". However, this is deemed unlikely by Southworth due to the contemporary use of the compound 'centamiḻ', which means refined speech in the earliest literature.
The Tamil Lexicon of University of Madras defines the word "Tamil" as "sweetness". S. V. Subramanian suggests the meaning "sweet sound", from tam — "sweet" and il — "sound".
Main article: Old Tamil language
Old Tamil is the period of the Tamil language spanning the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD. The earliest records in Old Tamil are short inscriptions from between the 3rd and 2nd century BC in caves and on pottery. These inscriptions are written in a variant of the Brahmi script called Tamil-Brahmi. The earliest long text in Old Tamil is the Tolkāppiyam, an early work on Tamil grammar and poetics, whose oldest layers could be as old as the late 2nd century BC. Many literary works in Old Tamil have also survived. These include a corpus of 2,381 poems collectively known as Sangam literature. These poems are usually dated to between the 1st century BC and 5th century AD.
Main article: Middle Tamil language
The evolution of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is generally taken to have been completed by the 8th century, was characterised by a number of phonological and grammatical changes. In phonological terms, the most important shifts were the virtual disappearance of the aytam (ஃ), an old phoneme, the coalescence of the alveolar and dental nasals, and the transformation of the alveolar plosive into a rhotic. In grammar, the most important change was the emergence of the present tense. The present tense evolved out of the verb kil (கில்), meaning "to be possible" or "to befall". In Old Tamil, this verb was used as an aspect marker to indicate that an action was micro-durative, non-sustained or non-lasting, usually in combination with a time marker such as ṉ (ன்). In Middle Tamil, this usage evolved into a present tense marker – kiṉṟa (கின்ற) – which combined the old aspect and time markers.
The Nannul remains the standard normative grammar for modern literary Tamil, which therefore continues to be based on Middle Tamil of the 13th century rather than on Modern Tamil. Colloquial spoken Tamil, in contrast, shows a number of changes. The negative conjugation of verbs, for example, has fallen out of use in Modern Tamil – instead, negation is expressed either morphologically or syntactically. Modern spoken Tamil also shows a number of sound changes, in particular, a tendency to lower high vowels in initial and medial positions, and the disappearance of vowels between plosives and between a plosive and rhotic.
Contact with European languages affected written and spoken Tamil. Changes in written Tamil include the use of European-style punctuation and the use of consonant clusters that were not permitted in Middle Tamil. The syntax of written Tamil has also changed, with the introduction of new aspectual auxiliaries and more complex sentence structures, and with the emergence of a more rigid word order that resembles the syntactic argument structure of English. Simultaneously, a strong strain of linguistic purism emerged in the early 20th century, culminating in the Pure Tamil Movement which called for removal of all Sanskritic elements from Tamil. It received some support from Dravidian parties. This led to the replacement of a significant number of Sanskrit loanwords by Tamil equivalents, though many others remain.
Tamil is the primary language of the majority of the people residing in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, (in India) and in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. The language is spoken among small minority groups in other states of India which include Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra and in certain regions of Sri Lanka such as Colombo and the hill country. Tamil or dialects of it were used widely in the state of Kerala as the major language of administration, literature and common usage until the 12th century AD. Tamil was also used widely in inscriptions found in southern Andhra Pradesh districts of Chittoor and Nellore until the 12th century AD. Tamil was used for inscriptions from the 10th through 14th centuries in southern Karnataka districts such as Kolar, Mysore, Mandya and Bangalore.
There are currently sizeable Tamil-speaking populations descended from colonial-era migrants in Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Mauritius, South Africa, Indonesia, Thailand,Burma, and Vietnam. Tamil is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. A large community of Pakistani Tamils speakers exists in Karachi, Pakistan, which includes Tamil-speaking Hindus as well as Christians and Muslims – including some Tamil-speaking Muslim refugees from Sri Lanka. There are about 100 Tamil Hindu families in Madrasi Para colony in Karachi. They speak impeccable Tamil along with Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi. Many in Réunion, Guyana, Fiji, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago have Tamil origins, but only a small number speak the language. In Reunion where the Tamil language was forbidden to be learnt and used in public space by France it is now being relearnt by students and adults. Tamil is also spoken by migrants from Sri Lanka and India in Canada, the United States (especially New Jersey and New York City), Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and many other European and Middle Eastern countries.
See also: States of India by Tamil speakers and List of territorial entities where Tamil is an official language
Tamil is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and one of the 22 languages under schedule 8 of the constitution of India. It is one of the official languages of the union territories of Puducherry and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamil is also one of the official languages of Singapore. Tamil is one of the official and national languages of Sri Lanka, along with Sinhala. It was once given nominal official status in the Indian state of Haryana, purportedly as a rebuff to Punjab, though there was no attested Tamil-speaking population in the state, and was later replaced by Punjabi, in 2010. In Malaysia, 543 primary education government schools are available fully in Tamil medium. The establishment of Tamil medium schools has been in process in Myanmar to provide education completely in Tamil language by the Tamils who settled there 200 years ago. Tamil language is available as a course in some local school boards and major universities in Canada and the month of January has been declared "Tamil Heritage Month" by the Parliament of Canada. Tamil enjoys a special status of protection under Article 6(b), Chapter 1 of the Constitution of South Africa and is taught as a subject in schools in KwaZulu-Natal province. Recently, it has been rolled out as a subject of study in schools in the French overseas department of Réunion.
In addition, with the creation in October 2004 of a legal status for classical languages by the Government of India and following a political campaign supported by several Tamil associations, Tamil became the first legally recognised Classical language of India. The recognition was announced by the contemporaneous President of India, Abdul Kalam, in a joint sitting of both houses of the Indian Parliament on 6 June 2004.
The socio-linguistic situation of Tamil is characterised by diglossia: there are two separate registers varying by socioeconomic status, a high register and a low one. Tamil dialects are primarily differentiated from each other by the fact that they have undergone different phonological changes and sound shifts in evolving from Old Tamil. For example, the word for "here"—iṅku in Centamil (the classic variety)—has evolved into iṅkū in the Kongu dialect of Coimbatore, inga in the dialect of Thanjavur, and iṅkai in some dialects of Sri Lanka. Old Tamil's iṅkaṇ (where kaṇ means place) is the source of iṅkane in the dialect of Tirunelveli, Old Tamil iṅkiṭṭu is the source of iṅkuṭṭu in the dialect of Madurai, and iṅkaṭe in some northern dialects. Even now, in the Coimbatore area, it is common to hear "akkaṭṭa" meaning "that place". Although Tamil dialects do not differ significantly in their vocabulary, there are a few exceptions. The dialects spoken in Sri Lanka retain many words and grammatical forms that are not in everyday use in India, and use many other words slightly differently. Tamil dialects include Central Tamil dialect, Kongu Tamil, Madras Bashai, Madurai Tamil, Nellai Tamil, Kumari Tamil in India; Batticaloa Tamil dialect, Jaffna Tamil dialect, Negombo Tamil dialect in Sri Lanka; and Malaysian Tamil in Malaysia. Sankethi dialect in Karnataka has been heavily influenced by Kannada.
See also: Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil and Loan words in Sri Lankan Tamil
The dialect of the district of Palakkad in Kerala has many Malayalam loanwords, has been influenced by Malayalam's syntax, and has a distinctive Malayalam accent. Similarly, Tamil spoken in Kanyakumari District has more unique words and phonetic style than Tamil spoken at other parts of Tamil Nadu. The words and phonetics are so different that a person from Kanyakumari district is easily identifiable by their spoken Tamil. Hebbar and Mandyam dialects, spoken by groups of Tamil Vaishnavites who migrated to Karnataka in the 11th century, retain many features of the Vaishnava paribasai, a special form of Tamil developed in the 9th and 10th centuries that reflect Vaishnavite religious and spiritual values. Several castes have their own sociolects which most members of that caste traditionally used regardless of where they come from. It is often possible to identify a person's caste by their speech. Tamil in Sri Lanka incorporates loan words from Portuguese, Dutch, and English.
Spoken and literary variants
In addition to its dialects, Tamil exhibits different forms: a classical literary style modelled on the ancient language (sankattamiḻ), a modern literary and formal style (centamiḻ), and a modern colloquial form (koṭuntamiḻ). These styles shade into each other, forming a stylistic continuum. For example, it is possible to write centamiḻ with a vocabulary drawn from caṅkattamiḻ, or to use forms associated with one of the other variants while speaking koṭuntamiḻ.
In modern times, centamiḻ is generally used in formal writing and speech. For instance, it is the language of textbooks, of much of Tamil literature and of public speaking and debate. In recent times, however, koṭuntamiḻ has been making inroads into areas that have traditionally been considered the province of centamiḻ. Most contemporary cinema, theatre and popular entertainment on television and radio, for example, is in koṭuntamiḻ, and many politicians use it to bring themselves closer to their audience. The increasing use of koṭuntamiḻ in modern times has led to the emergence of unofficial ‘standard' spoken dialects. In India, the ‘standard' koṭuntamiḻ, rather than on any one dialect, but has been significantly influenced by the dialects of Thanjavur and Madurai. In Sri Lanka, the standard is based on the dialect of Jaffna.
Main articles: Tamil script and Tamil braille
See also: Vatteluttu, Grantha script, Pallava script, and Arwi
After Tamil Brahmi fell out of use, Tamil was written using a script called vaṭṭeḻuttu amongst others such as Grantha and Pallava. The current Tamil script consists of 12 vowels, 18 consonants and one special character, the āytam. The vowels and consonants combine to form 216 compound characters, giving a total of 247 characters (12 + 18 + 1 + (12 x 18)). All consonants have an inherent vowel a, as with other Indic scripts. This inherent vowel is removed by adding a tittle called a puḷḷi, to the consonantal sign. For example, ன is ṉa (with the inherent a) and ன் is ṉ (without a vowel). Many Indic scripts have a similar sign, generically called virama, but the Tamil script is somewhat different in that it nearly always uses a visible puḷḷi to indicate a 'dead consonant' (a consonant without a vowel). In other Indic scripts, it is generally preferred to use a ligature or a half form to write a syllable or a cluster containing a dead consonant, although writing it with a visible virama is also possible. The Tamil script does not differentiate voiced and unvoiced plosives. Instead, plosives are articulated with voice depending on their position in a word, in accordance with the rules of Tamil phonology.
In addition to the standard characters, six characters taken from the Grantha script, which was used in the Tamil region to write Sanskrit, are sometimes used to represent sounds not native to Tamil, that is, words adopted from Sanskrit, Prakrit, and other languages. The traditional system prescribed by classical grammars for writing loan-words, which involves respelling them in accordance with Tamil phonology, remains, but is not always consistently applied.ISO 15919 is an international standard for the transliteration of Tamil and other Indic scripts into Latin characters. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants and vowels to Latin script, and thus the alphabets of various languages, including English.
Numerals and symbols
Main article: Tamil numerals
Apart from the usual numerals, Tamil has numerals for 10, 100 and 1000. Symbols for day, month, year, debit, credit, as above, rupee, and numeral are present as well. Tamil also uses several historical fractional signs.
Main article: Tamil phonology
Tamil tongue twisters.
ஏழை கிழவன் வாழைப் பழத் தோல் மேல் சருசருக்கி வழுவழுக்கி கீழே விழுந்தான்.
'அவள் அவலளந்தால், இவள் அவலளப்பாள். இவள் அவலளந்தால், அவள் அவலளப்பாள். அவளும் இவளும் அவல் அளக்காவிட்டால், எவள் அவலளப்பாள் ?'
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Tamil phonology is characterised by the presence of retroflex consonants and multiple rhotics. Tamil does not distinguish phonologically between voiced and unvoiced consonants; phonetically, voice is assigned depending on a consonant's position in a word. Tamil phonology permits few consonant clusters, which can never be word initial. Native grammarians classify Tamil phonemes into vowels, consonants, and a "secondary character", the āytam.
Tamil has five vowel qualities, namely /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/. Each may be long or short. [ɯ] is an allophone of /u/ at the end of words. There are two diphthongs, /aɪ/ and /aʊ/. Long vowels are about twice as long as short vowels. The diphthongs are usually pronounced about 1.5 times as long as short vowels. Most grammatical texts place them with the long vowels.
Tamil consonants are presented as hard, soft and medial in some grammars which roughly corresponds to plosives, nasals and approximants. Unlike most Indian languages, Tamil does not distinguish aspirated and unaspirated consonants. In addition, the voicing of plosives is governed by strict rules in centamiḻ. Plosives are unvoiced if they occur word-initially or doubled. Elsewhere they are voiced, with a few becoming fricativesintervocalically, which means that voicing is not a phonological trait for plosives. Nasals and approximants are always voiced.
Tamil is characterised by its use of more than one type of coronal consonants: like many of the other languages of India, it contains a series of retroflex consonants. Notably, the Tamil retroflex series includes the retroflex approximant/ɻ/ (ழ) (example Tamil; often transcribed 'zh'), which is rare in the Indo-Aryan languages. Among the other Dravidian languages, the retroflex approximant also occurs in Malayalam (for example in 'Kozhikode'), disappeared from spoken Kannada around 1000 AD (although the character is still written, and exists in Unicode, ೞ as in ಕೊೞೆ), and was never present in Telugu. In some dialects of colloquial Tamil, this consonant is seen as disappearing and shifting to the alveolar lateral approximant/l/.Dental and alveolar consonants also historically contrasted with each other, a typically Dravidian trait not found in the neighbouring Indo-Aryan languages. While this distinction can still be seen in the written language, it has been largely lost in colloquial spoken Tamil, and even in literary usage the letters ந (dental) and ன (alveolar) may be seen as allophonic. Likewise, the historical alveolar stop has transformed into a dental stop in many modern dialects.
The alveolar stop *ṯ developed into an alveolar trill /r/ in many of the Dravidian languages. The stop sound is retained in Kota and Toda (Subrahmanyam 1983). Malayalam and Sri Lankan Tamil dialects still retain the original (alveolar) stop sound in gemination (ibid). In Old Tamil it took the enunciative vowel like the other stops. In other words, *ṯ (or *ṟ) did not occur word-finally without the enunciative vowel (ibid).
[n] and [n̪] are in complementary distribution and are predictable, [n̪] word initially and before [d̪] and [n] elsewhere, ie they are allophonic.
/ɲ/ is extremely rare word initially and is only found before /t͡ɕ/ word medially. [ŋ] only occurs before [g].
In most of the dialects /t:, nd/ are pronounced as [t͡r̥, nd͡r].
A chart of the Tamil consonant phonemes in the International Phonetic Alphabet follows:
The plosives are voiced when medial and after nasals. The sounds /f/ and /ʂ/ are peripheral to the phonology of Tamil, being found only in loanwords and frequently replaced by /p/ and /s/ respectively. There are well-defined rules for elision in Tamil categorised into classes based on the phoneme which undergoes elision.
Classical Tamil had a phoneme called the āytam, written as ‘ஃ'. Tamil grammarians of the time classified it as a dependent phoneme (or restricted phoneme) (cārpeḻuttu), but it is very rare in modern Tamil. The rules of pronunciation given in the Tolkāppiyam, a text on the grammar of Classical Tamil, suggest that the āytam could have glottalised the sounds it was combined with. It has also been suggested that the āytam was used to represent the voiced implosive (or closing part or the first half) of geminated voiced plosives inside a word. The āytam, in modern Tamil, is also used to convert p to f when writing English words using the Tamil script.
Main article: Tamil grammar
Tamil employs agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories. Tamil's standard metalinguistic terminology and scholarly vocabulary is itself Tamil, as opposed to the Sanskrit that is standard for most Aryan languages.
Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for Tamil, the Tolkāppiyam. Modern Tamil writing is largely based on the 13th century grammar Naṉṉūl which restated and clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications. Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu, sol, poruḷ, yāppu, aṇi. Of these, the last two are mostly applied in poetry.
Tamil words consist of a lexical root to which one or more affixes are attached. Most Tamil affixes are suffixes. Tamil suffixes can be derivational suffixes, which either change the part of speech of the word or its meaning, or inflectional suffixes, which mark categories such as person, number, mood, tense, etc. There is no absolute limit on the length and extent of agglutination, which can lead to long words with many suffixes, which would require several words or a sentence in English. To give an example, the word pōkamuṭiyātavarkaḷukkāka (போகமுடியாதவர்களுக்காக) means "for the sake of those who cannot go" and consists of the following morphemes:
he/she who does
Tamil nouns (and pronouns) are classified into two super-classes (tiṇai)—the "rational" (uyartiṇai), and the "irrational" (akṟiṇai)—which include a total of five classes (pāl, which literally means "gender"). Humans and deities are classified as "rational", and all other nouns (animals, objects, abstract nouns) are classified as irrational. The "rational" nouns and pronouns belong to one of three classes (pāl)—masculine singular, feminine singular, and rational plural. The "irrational" nouns and pronouns belong to one of two classes: irrational singular and irrational plural. The pāl is often indicated through suffixes. The plural form for rational nouns may be used as an honorific, gender-neutral, singular form.
|Example: the Tamil words for "doer"|
He who did
She who did
They who did
That which did
Those ones which did
Suffixes are used to perform the functions of cases or postpositions. Traditional grammarians tried to group the various suffixes into eight cases corresponding to the cases used in Sanskrit. These were the nominative, accusative, dative, sociative, genitive, instrumental, locative, and ablative. Modern grammarians argue that this classification is artificial, and that Tamil usage is best understood if each suffix or combination of suffixes is seen as marking a separate case. Tamil nouns can take one of four prefixes: i, a, u, and e which are functionally equivalent to the demonstratives in English. For example, the word vazhi (வழி) meaning "way" can take these to produce ivvazhi (இவ்வழி) "this way", avvazhi (அவ்வழி) "that way", uvvazhi (உவ்வழி) "the medial way" and evvazhi (எவ்வழி) "which way".
Tamil verbs are also inflected through the use of suffixes. A typical Tamil verb form will have a number of suffixes, which show person, number, mood, tense, and voice.
- Person and number are indicated by suffixing the oblique case of the relevant pronoun. The suffixes to indicate tenses and voice are formed from grammatical particles, which are added to the stem.
- Tamil has two voices. The first indicates that the subject of the sentence undergoes or is the object of the action named by the verb stem, and the second indicates that the subject of the sentence directs the action referred to by the verb stem.
- Tamil has three simple tenses—past, present, and future—indicated by the suffixes, as well as a series of perfects indicated by compound suffixes. Mood is implicit in Tamil, and is normally reflected by the same morphemes which mark tense categories. Tamil verbs also mark evidentiality, through the addition of the hearsay cliticām. Verb inflection is shown below using example aḻintukkoṇṭiruntēṉ; (அழிந்துக்கொண்டிருந்தேன்); "(I) was being destroyed".
Traditional grammars of Tamil do not distinguish between adjectives and adverbs, including both of them under the category uriccol, although modern grammarians tend to distinguish between them on morphological and syntactical grounds. Tamil has many ideophones that act as adverbs indicating the way the object in a given state "says" or "sounds".
Tamil does not have articles. Definiteness and indefiniteness are either indicated by special grammatical devices, such as using the number "one" as an indefinite article, or by the context. In the first person plural, Tamil makes a distinction between inclusive pronouns நாம்nām (we), நமதுnamatu (our) that include the addressee and exclusive pronouns நாங்கள்nāṅkaḷ (we), எமதுematu (our) that do not.
Tamil is a consistently head-final language. The verb comes at the end of the clause, with a typical word order of subject–object–verb (SOV). However, word order in Tamil is also flexible, so that surface permutations of the SOV order are possible with different pragmatic effects. Tamil has postpositions rather than prepositions. Demonstratives and modifiers precede the noun within the noun phrase. Subordinate clauses precede the verb of the matrix clause.
Tamil is a null-subject language. Not all Tamil sentences have subjects, verbs, and objects. It is possible to construct grammatically valid and meaningful sentences which lack one or more of the three. For example, a sentence may only have a verb—such as muṭintuviṭṭatu ("completed")—or only a subject and object, without a verb such as atu eṉ vīṭu ("That [is] my house"). Tamil does not have a copula (a linking verb equivalent to the word is). The word is included in the translations only to convey the meaning more easily.
The vocabulary of Tamil is mainly Dravidian. A strong sense of linguistic purism is found in Modern Tamil, which opposes the use of foreign loanwords. Nonetheless, a number of words used in classical and modern Tamil are loanwords from the languages of neighbouring groups, or with whom the Tamils had trading links, including Munda (for example, tavaḷai "frog" from Munda tabeg), Malay (e.g. cavvarici "sago" from Malay sāgu), Chinese (for example, campān "skiff" from Chinese san-pan) and Greek (for example, ora from Greek ὥρα). In more modern times, Tamil has imported words from Urdu and Marathi, reflecting groups that have influenced the Tamil area at times, and from neighbouring languages such as Telugu, Kannada, and Sinhala. During the modern period, words have also been adapted from European languages, such as Portuguese, French, and English.
The strongest impact of purism in Tamil has been on words taken from Sanskrit. During its history, Tamil, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam etc., was influenced by Sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary styles, reflecting the increased trend of Sanskritisation in the Tamil country. Tamil vocabulary never became quite as heavily Sanskritised as that of the other Dravidian languages, and unlike in those languages, it was and remains possible to express complex ideas (including in science, art, religion and law) without the use of Sanskrit loan words. In addition, Sanskritisation was actively resisted by a number of authors of the late medieval period, culminating in the 20th century in a movement called taṉit tamiḻ iyakkam (meaning "pure Tamil movement"), led by Parithimaar Kalaignar and Maraimalai Adigal, which sought to remove the accumulated influence of Sanskrit on Tamil. As a result of this, Tamil in formal documents, literature and public speeches has seen a marked decline in the use Sanskrit loan words in the past few decades, under some estimates having fallen from 40 to 50% to about 20%. As a result, the Prakrit and Sanskrit loan words used in modern Tamil are, unlike in some other Dravidian languages, restricted mainly to some spiritual terminology and abstract nouns.
In the 20th century, institutions and learned bodies have, with government support, generated technical dictionaries for Tamil containing neologisms and words derived from Tamil roots to replace loan words from English and other languages. As of 2019, the language had a listed vocabulary of over 470,000 unique words, including those from old literary sources. In November 2019, the state government issued an order to add 9,000 new words to the vocabulary.
Main article: Tamil loanwords in other languages
Words of Tamil origin occur in other languages. A notable example of a word in worldwide use with Dravidian (not specifically Tamil) etymology is orange, via Sanskrit nāraṅga from a Dravidian predecessor of Tamil nartaṅkāy "fragrant fruit". One suggestion as to the origin of the word anaconda is the Tamil anaikkonda, "having killed an elephant".Examples in English include cheroot (churuṭṭu meaning "rolled up"),mango (from māngāi),mulligatawny (from miḷaku taṇṇīr, "pepper water"), pariah (from paraiyan), curry (from kari),catamaran (from kaṭṭu maram, "bundled logs"), and congee (from kanji – rice porridge or gruel).
The following is a sample text in literary Tamil of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
Tamil in the Tamil script:
- உறுப்புரை 1: மனிதப் பிறவியினர் சகலரும் சுதந்திரமாகவே பிறக்கின்றனர்; அவர்கள் மதிப்பிலும், உரிமைகளிலும் சமமானவர்கள், அவர்கள் நியாயத்தையும் மனச்சாட்சியையும் இயற்பண்பாகப் பெற்றவர்கள். அவர்கள் ஒருவருடனொருவர் சகோதர உணர்வுப் பாங்கில் நடந்துகொள்ளல் வேண்டும்.।
- Uṟuppurai 1: Maṉitap piṟaviyiṉar cakalarum cutantiramākavē piṟakkiṉṟaṉar; avarkaḷ matippilum, urimaikaḷilum camamāṉavarkaḷ, avarkaḷ niyāyattaiyum maṉaccāṭciyaiyum iyaṟpaṇpākap peṟṟavarkaḷ. Avarkaḷ oruvaruṭaṉoruvar cakōtara uṇarvup pāṅkil naṭantukoḷḷal vēṇṭum.
Tamil in the International Phonetic Alphabet:
- urupːurai ond̺rʉ | mənid̪ə piriʋijinər səgələrum sud̪ən̪d̪irəmaːgəʋeː pirəkːin̺d̺ranər | əvərgəɭ məd̪ipːilum uriməigəɭilum səməmaːnəʋərgəɭ | əvərgəɭ nijaːjatːəijum mənətt͡ʃaːʈt͡ʃijəijum ijərpəɳbaːgə pet̺rəʋərgəɭ | əvərgəɭ oruʋəruɖənoruʋər sagoːdəɾə uɳərʋɨ paːŋgil nəɖən̪d̪ʉkoɭɭəl veːɳɖum |
- Section 1: Human beings all-of-them freely are born. They rights-in-and dignities-in-and equal-ones. They law-and conscience-and intrinsically possessed-ones. They among-one-another brotherly feeling share-in act must.
- Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They possess conscience and reason. Therefore, everyone should act in a spirit of brotherhood towards each other.
- ^ abTamil language at Ethnologue (24th ed., 2021)
- ^"Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011"(PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Archived(PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- ^"Official languages of Tamil Nadu", Tamil Nadu Government, archived from the original on 21 October 2012, retrieved 1 May 2007
- ^Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India: 50th report (delivered to the Lokh Sabha in 2014)(PDF), National Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India, p. 155, archived from the original(PDF) on 8 July 2016, retrieved 8 June 2017
- ^Languages of ASEAN, retrieved 7 August 2017
- ^School languages, LINGUAMON, archived from the original on 2 September 2015, retrieved 26 March 2016
- ^"Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 – Chapter 1: Founding Provisions", www.gov.za, South African Government
- ^ abDepartment of Official Languages, Government of Sri Lanka, retrieved 13 September 2012
- ^Republic of Singapore Independence Act, s.7. Republic of Singapore
- ^"Tamil to be a classical language". The Hindu. New Delhi. 18 September 2004. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- ^ abStein, B. (1977), "Circulation and the Historical Geography of Tamil Country", The Journal of Asian Studies, 37 (1): 7–26, doi:10.2307/2053325, JSTOR 2053325
- ^Steever 1998, pp. 6–9
- ^Zvelebil, Kamil (1973), The Smile of Murugan, BRILL, pp. 11–12, ISBN
- ^Hart, George L. "Statement on the Status of Tamil as a Classical Language", University of California Berkeley Department of South Asian Studies – Tamil
- ^Zvelebil 1992, p. 12: "...the most acceptable periodisation which has so far been suggested for the development of Tamil writing seems to me to be that of A Chidambaranatha Chettiar (1907–1967): 1. Sangam Literature – 200BC to AD 200; 2. Post Sangam literature – AD 200 – AD 600; 3. Early Medieval literature – AD 600 to AD 1200; 4. Later Medieval literature – AD 1200 to AD 1800; 5. Pre-Modern literature – AD 1800 to 1900"
- ^Definitive Editions of Ancient Tamil Works. Classical Tamil, Government of India
- ^Abraham, S. A. (2003), "Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India"(PDF), Asian Perspectives, 42 (2): 207, doi:10.1353/asi.2003.0031, hdl:10125/17189, S2CID 153420843
- ^Maloney, C. (1970), "The Beginnings of Civilization in South India", The Journal of Asian Studies, 29 (3): 603–616, doi:10.2307/2943246, JSTOR 2943246 at p. 610
- ^Subramaniam, T.S (29 August 2011), "Palani excavation triggers fresh debate", The Hindu, Chennai, India
- ^"Students get glimpse of heritage", The Hindu, Chennai, India, 22 November 2005, archived from the original on 18 May 2006
- ^ ab"Tamil Brahmi script in Egypt", The Hindu, 21 November 2007, retrieved 5 January 2015
- ^Mahadevan, Iravatham (24 June 2010), "An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil", The Hindu, Chennai, India
- ^The I.A.S. Tamil Medical Manuscript Collection, UNESCO, retrieved 13 September 2012
- ^Saiva Manuscript in Pondicherry, UNESCO, retrieved 13 September 2012
- ^Memory of the World Register: India, UNESCO, retrieved 13 September 2012
- ^Karthik Madhavan (20 June 2010), "Tamil saw its first book in 1578", The Hindu
- ^Kolappan, B. (22 June 2014), "Delay, howlers in Tamil Lexicon embarrass scholars", The Hindu, Chennai, retrieved 25 December 2014
- ^India 2001: A Reference Annual 2001. Compiled and edited by Research, Reference and Training Division, Publications Division, New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
- ^Krishnamurti 2003, p. 19
- ^Perumal, A. K. (2005) Manorama Yearbook (Tamil), pp. 302–318.
- ^Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, 2010, p. 297
- ^Menon, A. G. (2009), "Some observations on the sub-group Tamil-Malayalam: Differential realizations of the cluster * ṉt", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 53: 87, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00021285
- ^Andronov 1970, p. 21
- ^Southworth 2005, pp. 249–250
- ^Southworth 2005, pp. 250–251
Words containing tamil
Found 9 words containing tamil. Browse our Scrabble Word Finder, Words With Friends cheat dictionary, and WordHub word solver to find words that contain tamil. Or use our Unscramble word solver to find your best possible play! Related: Words that start with tamil, Words that end in tamil
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List of English words of Dravidian origin
Wikipedia list article
This is a list of English words that are borrowed directly or ultimately from Dravidian languages. Dravidian languages include Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, and a number of other languages spoken mainly in South Asia. The list is by no means exhaustive.
Some of the words can be traced to specific languages, but others have disputed or uncertain origins. Words of disputed or less certain origin are in the "Dravidian languages" list. Where lexicographers generally agree on a source language, the words are listed by language.
From unknown or disputed Dravidian languages
- Aiyo, a word used to express distress, regret and fear, either from Tamil aiyō, Sinhalese ayiyō, or Kannada ayyo or Malayalam aiyyo(അയ്യോ) or Telugu ayyo.
- Betel, a leaf of a vine belonging to the family Piperaceae; from Portuguesebetel, which probably comes from Tamil vettrilai (வெற்றிலை) or Malayalam vettila (വെറ്റില).
- Candy, crystallized sugar or confection made from sugar; via Persian qand, which is probably from a Dravidian language, ultimately stemming from the Sanskrit root word 'Khanda' meaning 'pieces of something'.
- Coir, cord/rope, fibre from husk of coconut; from Malayalam kayar (കയർ) or Tamil kayiru (கயிறு). The origin of this word cannot be conclusively attributed to Malayalam or Tamil.
- Congee, porridge, water with rice; uncertain origin, possibly from Tamil kanji (கஞ்சி), Telugu or Kannada gañji, or Malayalam kaṇni(കഞ്ഞി)
- Coolie, a labourer or slave, a South Asian person; possibly from Tamil cooli (கூலி) or Malayalam kooli(കൂലി) "labour", or possibly from Koḷī "Gujarati people" in Gujarati, which is not a Dravidian language
- Cot, a bedstead or a portable bed; via Hindi from Sanskrit, which in turn may have come from a Dravidian source such as Tamil kattil (கட்டில்)/patukkai (படுக்கை) or Malayalam kattil(കട്ടിൽ) or Kannada Kaata (ಕಾಟ).
- Cowry, the shells of certain sea snails, or the snails themselves; via Hindi and Urdu from Sanskrit kaparda (कपर्द), which may be related to Tamil kotu (கோது) "shell".
- Curry, a variety of dishes flavored with a spicy sauce; cognates exist in several Dravidian languages, including Tamil (கறி), Malayalam (കറി), Telugu (కూర) and others.
- Dosa, a pancake made from rice flour and ground pulses, typically served with a spiced vegetable filling. Possibly from Kannada or Tuludōse (ದೋಸೆ), from Tamil tōcai, or from other Dravidian sources.
- Ginger, a fragrant spice; exact route from Dravidian is uncertain, but possibly from Tamil inchi (இஞ்சி) or Malayalam inchi (ഇഞ്ചി)
- Godown, synonym to warehouse; English from Malay, which in turn may have borrowed it from Telugu giḍangi or Tamil kiṭanku.
- Gunny, an inexpensive bag; from Sanskrit via Hindi and Marathi, probably ultimately from a Dravidian language.
- Hot toddy, beverage made of alcoholic liquor with hot water, sugar, and spices; from Hindi tari "palm sap", probably from a Dravidian language
- Idli, a south Indian steamed cake of rice, usually served with sambhar. From Malayalam and Kannada iḍḍali.
- Jaggery, coarse brown sugar made from palm and sugarcane; via Portuguese jágara probably from Malayalam chakkara/sharkkara (ചക്കര/ശർക്കര) or Kannada sakkare Or Telugu Chakkera, having its origins in Sanskrit.
- Mango, A tropical fruit;origin probably from Tamil maangaay or Malayalam maanga (മാങ്ങ)
- Mongoose, a small carnivorous mammal from southern Eurasia or Africa, known for killing snakes; probably ultimately from a Dravidian language, with spelling influenced by the English word goose
- Mung, a type of bean; ultimately from Sanskrit mudga (मुद्ग), which is the name of the bean and the plant, perhaps via Tamil mūngu (முங்கு) "soak", or Malayalam mudra (മുദ്ര). Alternately, perhaps from mũg (मूँग), the name of the bean in Hindi, which is not a Dravidian language.
- Orange, a citrus fruit, or a color named for the fruit; cognates exist in several Dravidian languages, Tamil naaram (நாரம்) or Telugu naarinja (నారింజ) and others.
- Pagoda, a religious building; etymology uncertain but perhaps influenced by Tamil pagavadi (பகாவடி) "house belonging to a deity".
- Pariah, a social outcast; from Tamil paṟaiyar (பறையர்) or Malayalam paṟayan(പറയൻ), "drummer".
- Peacock, a type of bird; from Old Englishpawa, the earlier etymology is uncertain, but one possible source is Tamil tokei (தோகை) "peacock feather", via Latin or Greek
- Sambal, a spicy condiment; from Malay, which may have borrowed the word from a Dravidian language such as Tamil (சம்பல்) or Telugu (సంబల్).
- Teak, a tropical hardwood tree; called tekku (தேக்கு) in Tamil, thekku(തേക്ക്) in Malayalam, Telugu teku, and Kannada tegu
Gregory James, a professor with the language center of Hong Kong university believes that more than 100 words in the Oxford English Dictionary have Tamil origin, and there could be even more.
- ^Cash in the sense of "small copper coins" entered English from Tamil via Portuguese. Cash in the sense of "ready money" as opposed to invested wealth has a separate etymology, from Latin capsa via Middle French or Old Italian.
- ^The origin of bamboo is uncertain. It is thought to have entered English from Malayo-Polynesian languages, which borrowed it from Kannada.
- ^The origin of dhole is unknown, but some sources suggest a connection to Kannada tōḷa (ತೋಳ).
- ^"aiyo". Oxford Dictionaries - English.
- ^"Betel". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- ^"Candy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- ^"Coir". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- ^"Coir". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2015-07-26.
- ^"Congee". Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2014-04-19.
- ^"conjee, congee n.". Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). 1989. ISBN .
- ^"Coolie; Define Coolie at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^"coolie n.". Oxford English Dictionary (third ed.). 2008. ISBN .
- ^"cot n.4". Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). 1989. ISBN .
- ^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- ^"cowry n.". Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). 1989. ISBN .
- ^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- ^"Curry; Define Curry at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^P. Thankappan Nair (2004). South Indians in Kolkata. Punthi Pustak. ISBN .
- ^"Dosa". Oxford Dictionaries Lexico. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
- ^Origins of Plant Names-D.A. Patil.
- ^"Define Godown at Dictionary.com". Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- ^"gunny, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (third ed.). 2000. ISBN .
- ^"gunny". Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
- ^"toddy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
- ^"Idli". Oxford Dictionaries Lexico. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
- ^"Jaggery". Merriam Webster Dictionary.
- ^"Jaggery Etymology".
- ^"jaggery, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). 1989. ISBN .
- ^"Mango; Define Mango at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^"Mango". Merriam-Webster.com.
- ^"mango (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-07-19.
- ^Achaya, K.T. (2003). The Story of Our Food. Universities Press. p. 7. ISBN 9788173712937.
- ^"mongoose". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
- ^"Mung bean | Define Mung bean at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- ^"mung n.2". Oxford English Dictionary (third ed.). 2008. ISBN .
- ^"orange n.1 and adj.1". Oxford English Dictionary online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-30.(subscription required)
- ^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- ^"pariah, n. and adj.". Oxford English Dictionary (third ed.). 2008. ISBN .
- ^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- ^"Sambal; Define Sambal at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^"teak". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
- ^"Areca". Dictionary.com.
- ^"Catechu". Dictionary.com.
- ^"Catechu". WordReference.com.
- ^"Copra". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- ^"Calico". Dictionary.com.
- ^"Jackfruit". Merriam-Webster.com.
- ^"For this professor, tracking Tamil words in English is a passion". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^"cash2". Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
- ^"Catamaran; Define Catamaran at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^"Cheroot; Define Cheroot at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^"Corundum; Define Corundum at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^"Curry definition & meaning". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2021-10-07.
- ^"mulligatawny, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2003.
- ^"patchouli". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-19.
- ^"Pandal; Define Pandal at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- ^"bandicoot". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
- ^"pitta". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
- ^ abOxford University Press, 1998. Illustrated Oxford Dictionary. Great Britain. ISBN .CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- ^ ab"dhole". Merriam-Webster.com. n.d. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
- ^"hijra, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (third ed.). 2009.
Type a word & select a dictionary:
•Kapruka: Tamil-English & Sinhala-English (+ audio)
•Tamildict: Tamil-English dictionary & Tamil-German
•Tamicube: Tamil-English dictionary
•Goethe-Verlag: Tamil-English common phrases & illustrated vocabulary(+ audio)
•Tamil moli akarathi: Tamil dictionary by Kathiraiver Pillai (1928)
•Tamil lexicon: published by the University of Madras (1924-1936) + other version
•Tamil and English dictionary by Johann Philipp Fabricius (1972)
•Core vocabulary for Tamil by David McAlpin (1981)
•Anglo-Tamil dictionary by Peter Percival (1867)
•Comprehensive Tamil and English dictionaryof high and low Tamil by Miron Winslow (1862)
•English and Tamil dictionary by Joseph Knight & Levi Spaulding (1852)
•English and Tamil dictionary, Manuel lexikon for schools, by Joseph Knight, Levi Spaulding & Samuel Hutchings (1844)
•Phrasebook by P. Ramasawmy (1854)
•Classified collection of Tamil proverbs with translation into English, by Herman Jensen (1897)
•Tamil proverbswith their English translation, by Peter Percival (1874)
→Tamil keyboard to type a text with Tamil characters
•YouTube: Tamil alphabet (video)
•LearnTamil: Tamil course
•South Asia Language Resource Center: Tamil course (+ audio)
•University of Texas: Tamil script learners manual
•Penn Language Center: Tamil course
•alphabet: to write and recognize the Tamil characters
•Tamil Virtual Academy: Tamil handbooks for beginners & advanced learners
•Tamil among the classical languages of the world by Kulandai Swamy (2005)
•Word order in English and Tamil with orientation to translation by Rajendran Sankaravelayuthan (2008)
•studies about the Tamil language, by Jean-Luc Chevillard
•On Tamil poetical compositions and their "limbs", as described by Tamil grammarians, in Histoire, épistémologie, langage (2011)
•Tamil grammar self-taught by Martino de Zilva Wickremasinghe (1906) in Tamil & Latin characters
•Progressive grammar of common Tamil by Albert Henry Arden (1910)
•Larger grammar of the Tamil languagein both its dialects, by George Uglow Pope (1858)
•Grammar of the common dialect of the Tamul language, by Giuseppe Beschi, translated by George William Mahon (1848)
•Grammar of the Tamil Language by Charles Rhenius (1846)
•First Lessons in English and Tamul published by the Jaffna Book Society (1836): I & II
•Reference grammar of classical Tamil poetry by V. S. Rajam (150 bc - 6th ad)
• books about the Tamil language: Google books & Internet archive
•BBC: news in Tamil
Texts & Literature
•Lyrikline: poems in Tamil, with translation (+ audio)
•Bilingual discourse and cross-cultural fertilisation: Sanskrit and Tamil in medieval India, edited by Whitney Cox & Vincenzo Vergiani (2013)
•Early Tamil poetics between Nāṭyaśāstra and Rāgamālā by Herman Tieken
•Praising the king in Tamil during the Pallava period by Emmanuel Francis
•Words for worship: Tamil and Sanskrit in medieval temple inscriptions, by Leslie Orr
•Studies in Tamil literature and history by Ramachandra Dikshitar (1936)
•Tamil studies, or Essays on the history of the Tamil people, language, religion and literature, by Srinivasa Aiyangar (1914)
•A man called Bapu: Gandhi's story for children, in Tamil & in English
•The Naladiyār: classical Tamil, with translation into English by George Uglow Pope (1893)
•The "Sacred" Kurral of Tiruvalluva-Nāyanār: Tamil text, with translation into English & notes by George Uglow Pope (1886)
•Hero stone inscriptions in Tamil(450-650) by Appasamy Murugaiyan, in New dimensions in Tamil epigraphy (2012)
•Stèles funéraires en pays tamoul (2012)
•BibleGateway: Bible en Tamil, Easy to read version
•The New Testament in Tamil (1859)
•The Gospel according to St. Matthew in Tamil (1841)
•Book of Psalms in Tamil (1849) (Latin alphabet, phonetic)
•Translating scripture, language use, and protestant Tamil identity in postcolonial South India by Hephzibah Israel (2010)
•Some challenges for scholarship on Protestant translations of the Bible: the Tamil context, in Religion Compass (2010)
மனிதப் பிறிவியினர் சகலரும் சுதந்திரமாகவே பிறக்கின்றனர்
அவர்கள் மதிப்பிலும், உரிமைகளிலும் சமமானவர்கள், அவர்கள் நியாயத்தையும் மனச்சாட்சியையும் இயற்பண்பாகப் பெற்றவர்கள்.
அவர்கள் ஒருவருடனொருவர் சகோதர உணர்வுப் பாங்கில் நடந்துகொள்ளல் வேண்டும்.
•Universal Declaration of Human Rights: translation into Tamil (+ audio)
→First article in different languages
→Universal Declaration of Human Rights: bilingual text, in Tamil, English & other languages
→India: maps, symbols, heritage & documents
→Malayalam & other Dravidian languages: Telugu - Kannada
Xavier Nègre © Lexilogos 2002-2021
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- Interesting youtube channels
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Relax, honey, dont resist, and I wont move until you get used to it. Irishka nodded silently. After a few seconds, I felt that the tightly compressed ring of the anus parted slightly. I slightly moved forward, but then Irishka yelled: - That's it, get it out now, let me go.