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Free BibMe APA Format Guide & Generator

Welcome to a comprehensive guide on citing sources and formatting papers in the American Psychological Association style. Below are reference and in-text citation examples, directions on formatting your paper, and background information on the style.

What is APA?

APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating this specific citation style. They are not associated with this guide, but all of the information here provides guidance to using their style and follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

What is APA Citing?

APA style is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavioral and social sciences, not just psychology. There are other citation formats and styles such as MLA and Chicago citation style, but this one is most popular in the fields of science.

Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components.

The information in this guide follows the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and how to properly cite sources. This webpage was created solely by BibMe to help students and researchers focus on how to create APA citations.

The 7th edition of the Publication Manual was released in 2020. We address differences between the 6th and 7th editions at the end of this guide.

For more information, please consult the official Publication Manual.

We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the authors of the work you used to help you with your own research. When you use another person's information to help you with your project, it is important to acknowledge that individual or group. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work. Also, read up on how to be careful of plagiarism.

What Does it Look Like?

There are two types of citations:

  • In-text/Parenthetical citations: Those that are found in the body of a project are called in-text/parenthetical citations. They're added into a project when a direct quote or paraphrase has been added into your work. These citations only include the name(s) of the author(s), date, and page number(s), if applicable.
  • References: Those that are found on the final part of a project are called references. They're are found in the reference list (sometimes called APA works cited by some teachers), which is at the end of the assignment. It includes the full information of all sources used in a project. These types of references show the author's name, date published, title, publisher, URL, and other key pieces of information.

Depending on the types of sources used for your project, the structure for each citation may look different. There is a certain format or structure for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate APA format structure for your sources.

Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of in-text citations and reference citations.

Still wondering, "What is APA format?" To learn more about APA referencing, including access to the American Psychological Association\'s blog, formatting questions, & referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on the style. To learn more about using the BibMe service ( to help build APA citation website references, see the section below titled, "Using the BibMe Online Writing Center to Create Citations for your Reference List or APA Bibliography."

In-Text Citations Overview

When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text or parenthetical citation into the body of your project, immediately following it.

An APA in-text citation may look similar to this:

Author's Last name (Year) states that "direct quote" or paraphrase (page number).

Parenthetical citations look like this:

"Direct quote" or paraphrase (Author's Last name, Year, Page number).

These types of APA citations always have the author and the date together.

Only direct quotes need a page number. For paraphrased information, it isn't necessary, but helpful for the reader.

See the section below titled, "In-Text or Parenthetical Citations," for a full explanation and instructions.

Full References Overview

Each source used in your project is listed as a full citation on the APA reference page, which is usually the last part of a project.

The structure for each citation is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see APA format examples of some common source formats.

Most print and offline citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order:

Author's Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date published). Title of source. Publisher.

Most online citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order:

Author's Last name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Date published). Title of source. URL

To see how to format each section, scroll down to the appropriate areas of this guide. There is a section on authors, one on publication dates, another on titles, publishers, and on online information.

To determine the exact APA citation format for your full citations, scroll down to the section titled, "Common Examples."

For a detailed explanation on formatting your reference list, scroll down to the section titled, "Your Reference List."

Here's a quick snapshot of the basics:

All in-text citations included throughout the paper should have a corresponding full reference at the end of the project.

Full references go on their own page at the end of a project. Title the page "References"

References are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the reference (usually the author's last name, sometimes the title).

  1. If the reference begins with the words A, An, or The, ignore them and alphabetize the reference by the word following it.

If you're looking for an easy way to create your references and citations, use BibMe's free APA citation machine, which automatically formats your sources quickly and easily.

How to Structure Authors

Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. End this information with a period.

APA format example:

In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using the BibMe APA citation builder, click "Add another contributor" to add additional author names. Our free citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them.

Multiple authors, same last name:

If your reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets.


Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March. Viking.

Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen. Harper & Brothers.

No author:

When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title followed by the year in parentheses.


When citing an entire edited book in APA format, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also APA citation format for chapters in edited books.

Comparison chart:

Use this handy chart to determine how to format author names in citations and references.

How to Structure Publication Dates

General structure is:

  • Year, Month Day
  • Example: 1998, March 22

Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. In APA format for periodicals, include the month and day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses, which stands for no date. For more details, see Section 9.14 of the Publication Manual.

How to Structure the Title

For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period.


For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks. End it with a period.


The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview.

For web pages on websites: Same as above. The web page title is italicized.


Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Grantland.

For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Each important word should start with a capital letter.


The Boston Globe

If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description in brackets directly after the title. Only capitalize the first letter.


New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file].

How to Structure Publication Information

Publisher Location

In previous editions of the publication manual, books and sources that were not periodicals indicated the city and state of publication. However, in the 7th edition, the location of publication is no longer given except “for works associated with specific locations, such as conference presentations” (p. 297).

For conference presentations, give the city, state/province/territory, and country. If in the US, abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location.


  • Philadelphia, PA:
  • Rotterdam, Netherlands:

Periodical Volume and Number

For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers.


Journal of Education for Library and Information Science,57(1), 79-82.

If you're citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers.

How to Structure the Publisher

The names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals.

For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher's name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher's name. End this information with a period (See Section 9.29 in the Publication manual for more details).


Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as: Little Brown.

Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as: Oxford University Press.

How to Structure Online Sources

For sources found online:

  • include the URL at the end of the citation
  • do not place a period after the URL

If you're citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. This stands for Direct Object Identifier. A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a unique string of numbers and letters assigned by a registration agency. The DOI is used to identify and provide a permanent link to its location on the Internet. The DOI is assigned when an article is published and made electronically. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source you're citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then The x's indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. See sections 9.35-36 in the Publication manual for more details.

If you're using the automatic BibMe APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number.


Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world's fastest SD card.

Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and Open Oregon State. Open Praxis,8(2), 123-130.

Looking for more help and clarification? Check out this great resource!

Citations for Print Books

Author's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial. (Year published). Title of book. Publisher.


Finney, J. (1970). Time and again. Simon and Schuster.

Looking for an APA formatter? Don't forget that the BibMe APA citation generator creates citations quickly and easily.

Notes: When creating an APA book citation, keep these in mind:

  • Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles, as well as the first letter of any proper nouns.
  • The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be stated and italicized.

Citations for Edited Books

Most edited books state on the cover or title page that they are edited by an author or multiple authors. The format is the same as a print book, except the editor's name is in the author's position. Include a parentheses afterwards with the abbreviation (Ed.) for an edited book by one author or (Eds.) for an edited book with two or more authors.

Editor, F. M. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book. Publisher.


Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology. Springer-Verlag.

Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

Some edited books contain chapters written by various authors. Use the format below to cite an author's individual chapter in an edited book.

Chapter author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Publisher.

Notice that for APA style, the title of the chapter is not italicized, while the title of the book is. In addition, the chapter author's name is reversed at the beginning of the reference, but the editor's name is written in standard order.


Longacre, W. A., & Ayres, J. E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S. R. Binford & L. R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160).

In the above example, Longacre and Ayers are the authors of the individual chapter and Binford & Binford are the editors of the entire book.

Citing an E-book from an E-reader

E-book is short for "electronic book." It is a digital version of a book that can be read on a computer, e-reader (Kindle, Nook, etc.), or other electronic devices. Include the DOI or URL if one exists for the e-book.

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of work. or URL is used when a source has a DOI number. If the e-book you're citing has a DOI number, use it in the APA citation. DOIs are preferred over URLs.

How to cite in APA (an e-book example):

Eggers, D. (2008). The circle.

Citing an E-book Found in a Database and Online

Use this format when citing an e-book that is either found on a website, or found on a subscription database. APA formatting for this is very similar to the structure of a print book. The only difference? Instead of the publisher information, include the DOI number or URL.

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of work. OR URL

When citing an online book or e-book, keep in mind:

  • A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content to its location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to use it when creating a citation. In place of the x's in the DOI format, place the 10 digit DOI number.
  • Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation.


Sayre, R. K., Devercelli, A. E., Neuman, M. J., & Wodon, Q. (2015). Investment in early childhood development: Review of the world bank's recent experience.

Citations for Chapters in E-books

Need to cite a chapter in an e-book? No problem! Citing a chapter in an e-book is very similar to citing a chapter in a print book. Instead of including the publisher information, include a DOI number (if one is displayed) or the URL.

Chapter author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). or URL

Epstein W. M. (1999). The ineffectiveness of psychotherapy. In C. Feltham (Ed.), Controversies in psychotherapy and counselling (pp. 65-73).

Citations for Websites

How to cite a web page on a website in APA:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day published). Title of article or page. Site Name. URL

APA website citation example:

Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Grantland.

Citing a web page with a group author:

Group Name. (Year, Month Date published). Title of wep page. Saite Name included if different from Group Name. URL


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, February 3). Be prepared to stay safe and healthy in winter.

National Park Service. (n.d.). Enchanting landscapes beneath the parks.

Note: "n.d." stands for "no date" and is used when there is no publication date.

The above follows Section 10.16 of the Publication manual.

Still wondering how to cite a website in APA? Check out! It's quick, simple, and free! Our APA citation machine also builds references for many other styles as well!

Citations for Journal Articles Found in Print

Today, most journal articles are found online, but you may be lucky enough to score a copy of a print version for your research project. If so, use the structure below for your reference:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.

Notice that the article's title is only capitalized at the beginning. If there are any proper nouns or subtitles, capitalize the first letter for those words as well. The journal article's title and the volume number are both italicized. In addition, the title of the journal is in title case form (all important words are capitalized).


Nevin, A. (1990). The changing of teacher education special education. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children,13(3-4), 147-148.

Citations for Journal Articles Found Online

Databases are a popular place to find high quality journal articles. These references are formatted the same way as the print versions, except the DOI or URL is included at the end. If the article has a corresponding DOI number, use it instead of the URL. No URL? Use the homepage of the journal's website for the URL. See Section 10.1 in the Publication manual for additional examples.

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. OR URL


Spreer, P., & Rauschnabel, P. A. (2016). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 36(3), 240-263.

Notes: When creating your online journal article citation, keep in mind:

  • This citation style does NOT require you to include the date of access/retrieval date or database information for electronic sources.
  • Use the URL of the journal homepage if there is no DOI assigned and the reference was retrieved online. * If the journal article has a DOI number assigned to it, include that number in the citation instead of a URL.
  • Don't forget, our free BibMe APA generator is simple to use! Check out BibMe Plus while you're at it! If you have a noun, conjunction, or preposition out of place, we'll flag it and offer suggestions for quick writing fixes!

Citations for a Newspaper Article in Print

Similar to journal articles, most individuals use online newspaper articles for research projects. However, if you're able to get your hands on a print version, use this structure for your reference:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. xx-xx.


Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, p. D5.

Notes: When creating your newspaper citation, keep in mind:

  • Begin page numbers with p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages).
  • Even if the article appears on non-consecutive pages, include all page numbers, and use a comma to separate them. Example: pp. C2, C5, C7-C9.
  • Include the full date of publication, not just the year like in most references.

Citations for Newspapers found Online

Use this structure when referencing a newspaper article found on a website or database:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. URL of newspaper's homepage


Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times.

Notes: When citing a newspaper, keep in mind:

  • If the article was found on the newspaper's website, include the URL for the newspaper's homepage. For databases, include whatever URL is provided.
  • Multiple lines: If the URL runs onto a second line, only break URL before punctuation (except for http://).
  • This style does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. If you discovered a newspaper article via an online database, the database's information is NOT required for the citation either. If you're using the BibMe APA formatter, we make it easy for you by only including what you need in your references!

Citations for Magazines

Citing a magazine article in print:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month of publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), page range.

APA format citation:

Tumulty, K. (2006, April). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15), 3-40.

Notes: When citing a magazine, keep in mind:

  • You can find the volume number with the other publication information of the magazine.
  • You can typically find page numbers at the bottom corners of a magazine article.
  • If you cannot locate an issue number, simply don't include it in the citation.

Citing a magazine article found online:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month of publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue). URL


Tumulty, K. (2006, April). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15).,9171,1179361,00.html

Notes: When creating an online magazine citation, keep in mind:

*The volume and issue number aren't always on the same page as the article. Check out the other parts of the website before leaving it out of the citation.

Citations for Blogs

Blogs are found on websites and display continuously updated content and posts by a single author, group, or company. A blog shows news updates, ideas, information, and many other types of entries. Similar to journal entries, a blog begins with the date the information was added followed by the content.

If you’re wondering how to cite a blog entry, look no further! Citing a blog is very similar to citing a website.

Citing a blog post:

Last name of Author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day blog post was published). Title of blog post. Title of Blog. URL


Gonzalez, J. (2019, February 3). Let’s give our teaching language a makeover. Cult of Pedagogy.

Notice that the blog title only has a capital letter at the beginning. If there are any proper nouns in the title, capitalize the first letter for those as well.

Cite a blog post in the text of the paper:

(Author’s last name, Year)


Author’s last name (Year)

Citations for Research Reports

A research, or technical report, is a piece of work that provides insight into research done by an individual researcher, a group of researchers, or a company or organization.

Citing a research report in print:

Author’s Last Name, F. M. or Organization. (Year published). Title of research report (Report No.). Publisher.

Note: If the publisher is the same as the author, use the name as the the “Author” and don't list the publisher.


Michigan Venture Capital Association. (2018). Annual research report.

Citing an online research report:

Author’s Last Name, F. M. or Organization. (Year published). Title of research report (Report No.). URL


Newson, S. E. & Berthinussen, A. (2019). Improving our understanding of the distribution and status of bats within the Ryevitalise Landscape Partnership Scheme area (BTO Research Report No. 716).

Citations for Films

Producer's Last name, F. M. (Producer), & Director's Last name, F. M. (Director). (Release Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Studio.


Bender, L. (Producer), & Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Film]. Miramax.

Citations for Online Films & Videos:

Person who posted the video's Last name, F. M. [User name]. (Year, Month Day of posting). Title ofvideo [Video]. Publishing site. URL

If the name of the individual who posted the YouTube video is not available, begin the citation with the user name and do not place this information in brackets.

Smith, R. [Rick Smith] (2013, September 20). Favre to Moss! [Video]. YouTube.

Note: If you're discussing a certain part of the film or video in the body of your project, include a timestamp in the in-text or parenthetical citation. (Pulp Fiction, 1994, 1:15:30). The time stamp is Hours:Minutes:Seconds.

Citations for Images

Citing an image found in a print publication (such as a book or magazine) or museum:

Creator's Last name, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of image [Format]. Publisher/Museum.

Including the format helps the reader understand and visualize the type of image that is being referenced. It can be [Photograph], [Painting], or another medium.


Roege, W. J. (1938). St. Patrick's Cathedral, Fifth Avenue from 50th St to 51st Street [Photograph]. New York Historical Society.

Citing an image retrieved online:

Similar to citing an image in print, when citing an image found online, place the medium, or format, in the brackets. Capitalize the first letter.

Photographer, F. (Year of Publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Publisher. URL


Ferraro, A. (2014). Liberty enlightening the world [Digital image]. Flickr.

Citations for TV/Radio Broadcasts

Writer's Last name, F. M. (Writer), & Director's Last name, F. M. (Director). (Year of Airing). Episode title [TV series episode]. In F. M. Executive Producer's Last name (Executive Producer), TV series name. Channel.

Kand, K. (Writer), & Fryman, P. (Director). (2006). Slap bet [TV series episode]. In C. Bays (Executive Producer), How I met your mother. CBS.

TV/Radio Broadcasts found online:

Writer, F. M. (Writer), & Director, F. M. (Director). (Year of Airing). Episode title [Television series episode]. In F. M. Executive Producer's Last name (Executive Producer), TV series name. URL

Kand, K. (Writer), & Fryman, P. (Director). (2006). Slap bet [Television series episode]. In C. Bays (Executive Producer), How I met your mother.,p30,d0

Note: When citing a TV show or episode, keep in mind:

  • IMDB is a great resource for finding the information needed for your citation (Director, Writer, Executive Producer, etc.) * This information can also be found in the opening and closing credits of the show.

Type what you find into the BibMe APA formatter. We'll do the work for you and structure your references properly!

Citations for Songs

To cite in APA a song from an album listened to online, use the following structure:

Songwriter's Last name, F. M. (Copyright year). Title of song [Song recorded by F. M. Last name]. On Album title. Publisher. URL


  • If the song is done by a band or group, include the band or group's name instead of an individual's name.
  • Only include the "Recorded by F. M. Last name" portion if it's a different individual than the writer.
  • The format can be CD, Online song, mp3, or any other simple description to allow the reader to understand the format.

Swift, T. (2008). Love Story [Song]. On Fearless. Big Machine Records.

If you're using the BibMe APA citation generator to build your references, choose "Music/Audio" from the source options.

Citations for Interviews

A personal interview should NOT be included in a reference list. They are not considered recoverable data (they cannot be found by a researcher). You should reference personal interviews as citations in the body of the project instead.


(J. Doe, personal communication, December 12, 2004)

Citations for Encyclopedia and Dictionary Entries

Encyclopedia/Dictionary in print:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Publication Year). Entry title. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia or dictionary (pp. xx-xx). Publisher.


Kammen, C., & Wilson, A. H. (2012). Monuments. Encyclopedia of local history. (pp. 363-364). AltaMira Press.

Encyclopedia/Dictionary online with author(s):

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Publication Year or n.d.). Entry title. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia or dictionary. Publisher. Retrieved date, from URL

Encyclopedia/Dictionary online with group author:

Publisher or group name (Publication Year or n.d.). Entry title. In Title of encyclopedia or dictionary. Retrieved date, from URL


Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Taciturn. In dictionary. Retrieved February 10, 2020, from

If an entry looks like it goes through many updates, use “n.d.” as the publication date and show the date you retrieved it. If using an archived version, no retrieval date is needed.

How to Reference a Lecture

This style of reference would be used if you were citing a set of notes from a lecture (e.g., PowerPoint or Google slides provided by your instructor).

Citing online lecture notes or presentation slides:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Publication year). Name or title of lecture [Lectures notes or PowerPoint slides]. URL


Saito, T. (2012). Technology and me: A personal timeline of educational technology [PowerPoint slides].

Tip: If you want to cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture, this is considered personal communication. The notes may not be available online for others outside of the class to access. Refer to it only in the body of your essay or project. You can follow the style guide for personal communication available in the Interview section.

Citing Social Media

Social media is everywhere, even in research projects. Many influencers post thoughts, inspirational quotes, and intriguing stories in their profiles.

If you need to cite a post from a social media platform, use this structure:

Last name, F. M. or Group Name who posted the content [@Username]. (Year, Month Day posted). First 20 words of the post [Format]. Social Media Site Name. URL

Last name, F. M. or Group Name who posted the content [@Username]. (Year, Month Day posted). First 20 words of the post [Format]. Social Media Site Name. URL

A retrieval date (date you saw the page) is needed for profile pages since the contents are likely to change over time (e.g., Instagram profile, Facebook page etc.). The structure for that is:

Last name, F. M. or Group Name who posted the content [@Username]. (n.d.). Tweets or Home [Format]. Social Media Site Name. Retrieved from month day, year, URL

Some things to keep in mind:

  • If the name of the individual or group is unknown, begin the citation with the handle and remove the brackets.
  • If the post only includes an image or video without any text, instead of including the first 40 words of the post provide a description of the post and place it in brackets: [video of a NASA rocket leaving the atmosphere].
  • The format, in brackets, can be [Tweet], [Facebook status update], [Facebook page], [Instagram photo], [Instagram video], or for a Reddit post, use [Online forum comment].

Citing a Tweet from Twitter:


BibMe [@BibMe]. (2020, January 22). How to cite primary sources [Tweet]. Twitter.

Citing a Twitter profile:

BibMe [@BibMe] (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved February 18, 2020, from

Citing a Facebook post:


DeGeneres, E. (2018, December 21). Holiday party goals [Facebook status update]. Facebook.

Citing a Facebook page:


Smithsonian’s National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.) Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from

Citing an Instagram post:


Lipa, D. [@dualipa]. (2018, December 2). A lil Hollywood glam brunch! Thank you @variety for by Breakthrough Artist of the Year award and thank you for [Instagram photo]. Instagram.

Since this citation style is commonly used in science-related disciplines, it makes sense that many students and scholars include tables in their projects.

It's a good idea to include a table in your project when:

  • There is a good amount of quantitative information
  • A table would promote understanding

Do not write out the information from the table in the text of your paper. Including the same information in two spots is repetitive. Either type out the quantitative information in your paper or use a table.

If you choose to include a table, make sure to:

  • Refer to it in the text and provide a brief overview or snapshot of its contents.
  • Refer to the table in the text using numbers. For example, "Table 3 shows the countries with the highest amount of spending per pupil."
  • Every table should be numbered. The table mentioned closest to the beginning of the paper should be Table 1. The next table referred to in the paper is Table 2.
  • If you're submitting your project for publication in a journal or elsewhere, place all of your tables, in number order, at the end of your project, after the reference list. If you're submitting your project for a class, most professors prefer tables to be situated close to mentions in text. Ask your teacher or professor which one they prefer.
  • Each table needs a title. The title of the table should match the content displayed in it. Create a name for your table that is easy to understand. Italicize the title and capitalize the first letter of all major key words.
  • Do not include any vertical lines, only horizontal. Your horizontal lines should be over and above any column headings.
    • Capitalize the first letter of every important word.
  • Your table can either be single or double spaced. Keep the spacing in tables consistent throughout your project.
  • If you believe your table needs further explanation, or if it needs additional information to help the reader with understanding, include a note below the table.
    • A general note provides an overview of any information related to the table as well as an explanation of any abbreviations or unique characters. If you reproduced any portion of the table, include that information in the general note as well. Begin your general note with "Note." in italics and ending with period.
    • A specific note explains information in a row, column, or individual cell. Place a tiny letter in the top right corner of the area to specify, and include information regarding it in the note below.
    • A probability note displays the number of possibilities in the table. Use an asterisk symbol in the table, and show the probability in the notes.

Sample Table:

Prior to adding your table into your paper, use this handy checklist to confirm you have all of the requirements:

__ Is it necessary to include the table?

__ Are only horizontal lines included?

__ Did you include a simple, straightforward title? Is it in italics?

__ Did you use either single spaces or double spaces? APA paper format requires you to keep your tables consistent across your project.

__ Are column headings included?

__ Are notes included below the table to provide understanding? Are the notes in the proper order? Start with general notes, then include specific notes, and end with probability notes.

__ Did you refer to the table in the written portion of your paper?

Still have questions? See Chapter 7 of the Publication manual.

What is an In-Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation?

The purpose of in-text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they're in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased in your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include a citation next to it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in the reference list, which is usually the last item in a project.

In-Text Citations for Direct Quotes

In-text and parenthetical citations are found immediately following any direct quotes or paraphrases. They should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves.


Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He stated, "no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment's safety" (London, 1903, p. 25).

Paraphrased Information

When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words (a paraphrase), it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information.


At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001).

How to Format In-Text and Parenthetical Citations

An in-text citation in APA displays the author's name directly in the sentence, or text, of the paper. Always place the year directly after the author's name. Authors and dates stick together like peanut butter and jelly! If you're citing a direct quote, place the page number at the end of the quote.

Parenthetical citations display the author's name and year in parentheses after a quote or paraphrase. If you're citing a direct quote, include the page number as well. If you're paraphrasing, it is up to you whether or not you'd like to include a page number.

Example of various ways to cite in the body of a project:

Smith (2014) states that, "the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works" (p. 82).

"The Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works" (Smith, 2014, p. 82).

If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text or parenthetical citation.

Example: (Franks & Beans, 2019)

If your source has three or more authors, only include the first author's name and follow it with et al.

Example: (Gilley et al., 2015)

If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group's name in full in the first in text or parenthetical citation. In any APA citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable.


1st citation:

(American Eagle Outfitters /[AEO/], 2017)

2nd and subsequent citations:

(AEO, 2017)

Still wondering how to in-text cite in APA? How about citing parenthetically? Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe writing tools can help create your in-text and parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you'll see the option to create a citation for the body of your project (in-text) in the APA format generator.

Need help with your writing? Give the BibMe Plus paper checker a whirl! Upload your paper or copy and paste it into the text box on the page. We'll run it through our innovative technology and let you know if there is an adjective, verb, or pronoun out of place, plus much, much more!

Your Reference List

The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the reference list, which is the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are all of the sources you quoted or paraphrased in the body of your paper. This means that every reference found in the reference list should have a matching in-text or parenthetical citation in your project. Where there is one, there has to be the other. Here are general guidelines:

  • Your reference page in APA should be titled "References"
  • Place the title in the center of the page and bold it.
  • It is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project.
  • All references are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.
  • The entire page should be double spaced.
  • Use a hanging indent for all citations. The first line of each citation needs to be flush against the left margin. Any additional lines are indented in a half inch.
  • If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of publication.
  • Refer to the section titled, "How to Structure the Title," for rules regarding capitalization of source titles.


Thompson, H. S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream. Random House.

Thompson, H. S. (1998). The rum diary. Simon & Schuster.

If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title.


Dr. Seuss. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. Random House.

Dr. Seuss. (1958). Yertle the turtle. Random House.

If a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title.

Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? helps you generate citations! Begin by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Try it out!

Sample Reference List:

APA Reference List

Here's more information with sample papers and tutorials. Further information acan be found in Chapter 9 of the Publication manual.

How to Format Your Paper in APA:

Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines:

In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and APA headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. See Chapter 2 of the Publication manual for more details on paper formatting.

Place the pages in the following order:

  1. Title page (Page 1)
  2. Abstract page (page 2)
  3. Text or body of research paper (start on page 3)
  4. Reference list
  5. Page for tables (if necessary)
  6. Page for figures (if necessary)
  7. Appendices page (if necessary)

Page numbers: The title page counts as page 1. Number subsequent pages using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4...).

Title Page in APA

Your title page should grace the front cover of your paper. It's sometimes called an APA cover page. Included on this page are seven items:

  1. Page number
  2. Title of paper
  3. Name of authors
  4. Affiliation; name of your school or institution
  5. Course name
  6. Instructor's name
  7. Date paper is due

What is a running head?

The running head shows the title of your paper. It is only required for professional papers (e.g., dissertations, journal submissions, etc.).

Student papers do not need a running head (but do need the page number).

If you use one, place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. Use your word processor's "header" option. It will automatically place your running head in the appropriate position, against the left margin.

Across from the running head, against the right margin, include the page number. The APA title page is 1.

Title page example:

Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you!

Need help determining the title of your paper? Keep it simple and straight to the point. Exclude unnecessary terms such as "An Analysis of...." or "A Study of..." If your paper ends up being digitized and added to your school's research collection or a research database, a simple and effective title will help researchers locate it. It is recommended to keep it under 12 words and avoid abbreviations.

Order | Element | Format & Notes --- | --- | --- 0 | All elements, except page number | Centered, double-spaced lines 1 | Page number | Place “1” in the upper right corner of the page. Professional papers only: Include a running head. 2 | Title of paper | 3-4 lines from the top of the page; bolded, and title case 3 | Name of author(s) | Two double-spaced lines under the title. No font formatting (no bold italics, underline). Exclude any titles (such as Dr. or Ms.) and degrees (such as PhD). List all contributors; if there is more than one include the word “and” between the second to last and last names. 4 | Affiliation (school, department, etc.) | No font formatting. Usually includes the name of your department and university. 5 | Course name | No font formatting. Write the course name and number on your class materials: ENG 102, JPN301. 6 | Instructor | No font formatting. Show their name as they prefer, including titles and degrees. 7 | Date paper is due | Month Day, Year. Example: February 14, 2020

Example Title Page - Student Paper:

Running Head in APA

Example Title Page - Professional Paper:

Running Head in APA

If you're looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on

Levels of Headings:

There are a lot of rules to follow when it comes to styling the header and title page, but there are even more rules when it comes to styling the various headings and sections in your research paper.

There are five sizes and styles, and they follow a top down approach.

In most cases, science-related papers and case studies have three sections: Method, Results, and Discussion. These three sections are considered “Level 1” and are aligned in the center of the page and in bold. Additional sections of the paper are styled as follows:

Overview of Levels

Level | Formatting --- | --- 1 | Center and bold. Use title case. 2 | Against the left margin and in bold. Use title case. Begin the next sentence on the next line, indented half an inch from the left margin. 3 | Against the left margin in bold and italics. Use title case. Begin your next sentence on the next line, and indented half an inch from the left margin. 4 | Indented half an inch from the left. Is in bold. Use title case. Begin your next sentence on the same line and immediately following the heading. 5 | Indented half an inch from the left. Is in bold and italics. Use title case. Begin your next sentence on the same line and immediately following the heading.

We’ve included a visual below to help you make sense of the five headings. Keep in mind, you do not need to have all five headings in your paper. You may only use the top two or three. It depends on the types of sections your paper includes.

Running Head in APA

Using the BibMe Online Writing Center to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography

Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe can help you generate your citations; simply enter a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information.

Click to see more styles, and if you'd like to cite your sources in MLA format, check out the BibMe MLA page. Other citation styles are available as well.

Not only will BibMe help you create your references quickly and painlessly, we'll also scan your paper with an innovative plagiarism checker. BibMe writing tools even helps to check your grammar, too! Improper usage of adverb? Missing an interjection? Determiner out of place? BibMe writing tools will highlight any areas of concern and offer suggestions to improve your writing. Try it out now!

The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research.

Since its inception, the Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 7th edition (2020). The previous 6th edition was released in 2009. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating an APA style citation for any type of electronic resource.

Today, there are close to 118,000 members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology.

Changes Between the 6th and 7th Editions

Below is a selection of notable citing differences between the two editions.

For journal articles with a DOI number, include the DOI as a URL.

6th edition example:

Lee, C.-H., & Mackinnon, R. (2019). Voltage sensor movements during Hyperpolarization in the HCN Channel. Cell Studies. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.11.006

7th edition example:

Lee, C.-H., & Mackinnon, R. (2019). Voltage sensor movements during Hyperpolarization in the HCN Channel. Cell Studies.

For ebooks, you no longer need to identify the format.

6th edition example:

Murakami, H. (2014). Kafka on the shore [Kindle].

7th edition example:

Murakami, H. (2014). Kafka on the shore.

Full book references no longer need to show where the publisher is located.

6th edition example:

Murakami, H. (2014). Kafka on the shore. London: Vintage Publishing.

7th edition example:

Murakami, H. (2014). Kafka on the shore. Vintage Publishing.

In-text citations for sources with more than 3 authors can use the notation “et al.” for brevity.


(first author’s name et al., year published)

6th edition example:

(Anaydike, Braga, Talfah, Gonzalez, 1980)

7th edition example:

(Anaydike et al., 1980)

When including a website URL, do not include the words “Retrieved from” before the URL cited.

6th edition example:

Elan, P. (2019, December 6). 'A reflection of inner life': show explores history of the hoodie. The Guardian. Retrieved from

7th edition example:

Elan, P. (2019, December 6). 'A reflection of inner life': show explores history of the hoodie. The Guardian.

The citing format for tables and figures are now the same. For both, indicate a table number and name at the top, and a note at the bottom.

Here are a few important paper formatting changes: * Running head is only required for professional (not student) papers * Only a single space should be placed after punctuation. * The new style version endorses the use of the singular “they” as an option for a gender neutral pronoun. * The 7th edition promotes the use of “they” as a singular, gender-neutral pronoun. * In addition to the paper title, author name, and institutional affiliation, a cover page for a student paper should also have the course, instructor name, and due date


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Updated March 10, 2020

Edited and written by Elise Barbeau and Michele Kirschenbaum. Elise is a citation expert and has her master’s degree in public history/library science. She has experience in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. Michele is a certified library media specialist who loves citations and teaching. She’s been writing about citing sources since 2014.

Helpful Tips for Your Citation


Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles.


If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well.


Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!


APA Citation Examples

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Welcome to the EasyBib APA Citations Guide. In this easy-to-read and thorough guide, you’ll learn how to structure your citations according to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association and see examples of citations for different source types.

We’ll start with the basics and explain what APA is and why it’s so important. If you’re here to simply learn how to cite your sources, scroll down to the bottom half of this page. Whether you’re trying to cite a book, website, newspaper article, or even an Instagram post, we have what you need!

If you’re here to learn how to format an APA style, a title page, or learn how to build an APA research paper outline, check out our APA format guide. It covers everything related to the design and styling of your paper. It even has an APA example paper!

Table of Contents

The Basics of APA

We’re going to start from the beginning for all of you newbies out there, or for those of you looking for a refresher.

APA is an abbreviation which stands for American Psychological Association. This is a massive organization, responsible for creating and sharing psychology-related publications, research, and databases.

Basically, they keep psychologists and other similar roles in the loop with what’s happening in the world of psychology. With close to 120,000 members, this is THE leading world organization related to psychology.They are not officially associated with this guide, but the information here talks about their citing format and rules in depth.

Why were APA citations created and why did my teacher ask me to use this style?

Are you scratching your head, wondering what is APA style is and how this all relates to your research project? To make a long story short, the American Psychological Association did something really cool. Back in 1952, they created a way for ALL psychology researchers to structure their citations. This standard method did three things:

  1. Psychology researchers were all able to display the sources they used in a systematic way.
  2. Readers were able to easily understand the information shown in citations.
  3. There was enough information displayed in the citations for readers to go out and find the exact sources on their own.

APA citations were such a hit, they were so good, that other science disciplines soon adopted the citation format as well. In fact, other disciplines outside of the science world use APA style today, too. So, whether you’re creating a psychology-related research project or not, there’s a good chance you were asked to create your citations in APA style.

Currently in its 7th edition, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is one of the most frequently used style guides for academic writing today!

With the 7th edition just coming onto the scene in 2020, the American Psychological Association does not expect to see widespread usage of the 7th edition until later in 2020. This is why you should always double-check with your teacher on whether they want you to use the 6th edition or the 7th edition for your projects.

Click here for more basics on this style.

Another widely used style is MLA format. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other styles, so perhaps your teacher or professor requested a completely different one. If you’re in that boat, head to to check out more styles. While you’re at it, poke around and check out our APA reference generator. It may be just what you’re looking for.

References vs. Citations – What’s the difference?

References and citations are two terms that are thrown around a lot and quite often mean the same thing. A reference, or citation, shows the reader that a piece of information originated elsewhere. But, along came APA and decided to throw a curveball at us. In APA, the two terms have two different meanings.

A citation is found in the actual writing of an APA research paper.

In-text citation example:

“Lecture-rooms are numerous and large, but the number of young people who genuinely thirst after truth and justice is small” (Einstein, 2007, p. 5).

A reference is found on the reference page, which is the last page of a research paper. 

Reference Page Example:

Einstein, A. (2007). The world as I see it. Google Books. (Original work published 1934)

The information included in an APA citation is just a snapshot of the information found in the full reference. For more information on when it’s appropriate to include a citation in your paper, head to section 8.1-8.10 of the Publication manual.

Now, what makes things even trickier is that most teachers and professors use the term “APA citations” when they’re actually talking about the full references. How many times have you heard your teacher say, “Make sure you have your citations on the last page!”

Eek! So, to stay on the same page as your teacher, this guide shows you how to make references for an APA reference page, but we’re calling the page “APA Citations.” Someone’s gotta give in, right? Looks like it’s us.

If you’re looking for a quick read on the citations found in the body of the paper, check out our APA Parenthetical Citation page. It’s just one of the many free APA citation guides available on Need an APA citation generator? You can find one at as well!

If you’re looking for help with the writing or grammar in your paper, check out our research, pronoun, and determiner pages. We have tons of other free grammar pages too!

A rundown on references

Before we get into the nitty-gritty details on how to structure references for your APA paper, let’s get one more quick piece of information off the table.

References are added to research papers and projects only when a source is included in the writing itself.

We don’t add references to a reference page if we want to simply suggest other, similar titles. No! We create references when an actual piece of information from another source is added into the project.

Does your paper include a piece of data from a report? Great! You copied a line of text from a case study and put it in your project (with quotation marks around it)? Perfect! You included a bar graph you found in a brochure? Fantastic! Make sure you create an APA citation in the text of your paper and include the reference on the final page.

The only exception to the above rule is if you’re creating an “annotated bibliography.” For more on that, check out our APA annotated bibliography page.

In case you were wondering, the same goes for MLA in-text & parenthetical citations on the MLA works cited page.

Ready to get started? The next section of the guide is going to explain, step-by-step, how to structure every nook and cranny of your references.

But, if you’re dreaming of an APA citation maker to help make the pain go away from building your references from scratch, you’re in luck. has an APA citation maker! In just a few clicks, our technology structures and styles each and every APA citation for you. If you don’t know much about it, head to the EasyBib homepage to learn more.

While you’re at it, try out our APA cover page maker, found on the main page as well!

Fundamentals of an APA citation

This entire section goes into detail on each component of a reference. If you’re looking to learn how to style the names of the authors, the title, publishing information, and other aspects related to the reference, this section is for you!

Formatting Author Information

If you want to skip the small talk and see an APA style paper example, go to the “Citation Resources” menu on this page and select “APA Format Guide.” It includes a title page example, an APA paper example, and an APA reference page example.It’s all there for you and the best part about it is it’s free! Do yourself a favor and take a peek at it now!

Author information

The very first piece of information in most references is the author’s name(s). We say “most,” because some sources may not have an author (such as websites, the Bible…). If your source doesn’t have an author, do not include any information about an author in your reference.

Citing a Source with 1 Author

APA Structure:

Last name of the Author, First initial. Middle initial.

APA Example:

Doe, J. B.

To see some examples, scroll down to the bottom half of this page.

Citing a Source with 2 Authors

Does your source have two authors? Do not put the names in alphabetical order. They should be written in the order they’re displayed on the source.

APA Structure:

Last name of the 1st listed Author, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Last name of the 2nd listed Author, First initial. Middle initial.

APA Example:

Doe, J. B. & Chen, W. I.

For an example of a reference with two authors according to the 7th edition of the Publication manual, scroll down to the “Journal Articles found in Print” section, or check out section 9.7-9.12 in the Publication manual.

Citing a Source with 3 to 20 Authors

Does your source have three to twenty authors? The American Psychological Association has made some updates on how to list multiple authors in your citations. If you have between three to twenty authors, list all the authors names (Last Name, Initials). Put them in the same order they’re listed in the source. Commas separate names, and put an ampersand right before the last name.

APA Example:

Bos, G., Hajek, S., Kogman-Appel, K., & Mensching, G. (2019). A Glossary of Latin and Italo-Romance Medico-Botanical Terms in Hebrew Characters on an Illustrated Manuscript Page (Ms. Oxford, Bodleian Opp. 688, fol. 177b). Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism 19(2), 169-199.

Citing a Source with 21+ Authors

If your source has over twenty authors, list the last name and initials of the first 19 authors, placing a comma between each name. After the name of the 19th author, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining authors’ names. Then, list the final author’s name in front of it.

Here’s a formatting example for 21+ names using the U.S. presidents (this is NOT a reference example):

Washington, G., Adams, J., Jefferson, T., Madison, J., Monroe, J., Adams, J. Q., Jackson, A., Van Buren, M., Harrison, W. H., Tyler, J., Polk, J., Taylor, Z., Fillmore, M., Pierce, F., Buchanan, J., Lincoln, A., Johnson, A., Grant, U. S., Hayes, R. B., … Trump, D. J.

Citing an Author that is an organization or company

If your source is written by an organization or company:

Some sources are written and released by companies, not necessarily individual people. For example, most brochures at museums only display the institution’s name. Advertisements also only show the company’s name. If the source you’re attempting to cite only shows a group or organization’s name, place it in the reference in the place you’d normally include an individual person’s name.

Write out the name of the group in full; do not use abbreviations. For example, it may seem okay to use USDA, but APA writing style prefers you write out United States Department of Agriculture.

If you’re looking for information on how to style your own name in APA headings, find the example paper on

Formatting Titles & Dates

Formatting the date of publication

The date the source was published is the next item shown in a reference. It’s directly after the author’s name.

For the majority of sources, include only the year in parentheses.

If you’re citing an article in a magazine, include the year and the month.

APA Example:

Peterzell, J. (1990, April). Better late than never. Time, 135(17), 20–21.

Check out the examples towards the bottom of the page, or head to sections 9.13-9.17 of the Publication manual to see how dates are displayed.

Title rules and capitalization

Titles are the next piece of information shown in a reference. Titles are often tricky for people to style. Students often wonder, “Should I type out the title as it’s shown on the source?” “Should the title be written in italics or underlined?” Here are the answers to (hopefully) all of your title-related questions:

Which letters are capitalized?

Most titles are written with a capital letter in these places:

  • At the beginning of the title
  • At the beginning of a proper noun
  • At the beginning of the subtitle

It may be tempting to write the title as you see it shown on the source, or with capital letters at the beginning of every important word, but that’s not how APA referencing does it.

Here are a few examples of proper lettering:

  • A star is born
  • Spider-Man: Into the spiderverse
  • Harry Potter and the deathly hallows

The only source types that are written with a capital letter at the beginning of every important word are periodicals. Some examples include the titles of newspapers, journals, and magazines.


  • The New York Times
  • School Library Journal,
  • Us Weekly

How should I style the title?

  • Anything that stands alone is written in italics. When we say “stands alone,” we mean it isn’t part of a larger collection. Most books are a single source, so they’re written in italics. Other examples include movies, brochures, dissertations, and music albums.
  • Sources that are part of a collection are written without italics. Website pages, journal articles, chapters in books, and individual songs (from an album) are written without italics.
  • Remember, the styling information above is for the APA reference page only! Citations in the text of the paper are styled differently. If you need to see a full APA sample paper, check out the other resources on!

Check out some of the examples below to see how the titles are typed out and styled. You can also head to section 9.18-9.22 of the Publication Manual for more details

If it’s not the actual title, but an APA title page for your paper that you need help with, check out the Title Page APA creator on the homepage of! Or, check out the main guide for this style, which includes an APA cover page template.

Additional information about a source

It can be difficult to understand a source type just by looking at an APA style citation. Sometimes it isn’t clear if you’re looking at a citation for a presentation, a blog post, lecture notes, or a completely different source type.

To clear up any confusion for your reader, you can include additional information directly after the title. This additional information about the source type is written in brackets with the first word having a capital letter.

APA Example:

Wilson, T. V. & Frey, H. (2019, May 13). Godzilla: The start of his story [Audio podcast]. iHeart Radio.

Thanks to the information in the brackets, the reader can easily see that the source is an audio podcast.

Check out the various examples towards the bottom of this page.

Publication information

Publication information includes the name of the publisher. In most cases, the publication information is only included for print sources. Check out the book reference below to see the publication information in action.

Citing Books in APA

You’ll find plenty of source types below. If you don’t see what you’re looking for, try out our APA reference generator on! Or, here’s a great informative site we like. If you’d like to see a full APA sample paper, take a glance at the main citation guide for this style on

Citing books in print in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of the book. Publisher.

APA Example:

Gaiman, N. (1996). Neverwhere. HarperCollins.

Looking for more examples? Check out our APA book citation page.

Citing a chapter in a print book in APA

A reference page APA citation for a chapter in a print book is styled the same way as the entire book. It is not necessary to showcase or display the individual chapter. However, in the text of the paper, the chapter is shown like this: (Author’s Last name, Year, Chapter #).

Citing a chapter in an edited book in print in APA

An edited book is one that was compiled by an author. Each individual chapter, or section, is written by someone else. Since you’re probably citing the specific chapter, rather than the whole entire book, place the name of the chapter’s author in the first position.

APA Structure:

Chapter Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Chapter title. In F. M. Editor’s Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (Xrd ed., pp. x-x). Publisher.

APA Example:

Alexander, G. R. (2015). Multicultural education in nursing. In D. M. Billings, & J. A. Halstead (Eds.), Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (5th ed., pp. 263-281). Google Books.

Citing an e-book in APA

To cite an eBook, cite it the same way as you would a print book.

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book. Publisher. URL

APA Example:

Alcott, L. M. (1905). Under the lilacs. Little, Brown, and Company.

If you’re using the EasyBib APA citation generator to cite your e-books, click on the “book” source type.

APA Example:

Gaiman, N. (2009). Coraline. HarperCollins.

If you’re using’s APA citation generator to cite your e-books, click on the “book” source type.

Wondering what to do if you’re using a book that was reprinted? Check out the example of Einstein’s book, found towards the top of this guide.

Citing The Bible in APA

Since the bible is considered a “classical work,” and widely known, it is not necessary to create a full reference. Only include a citation in the text of the paper.

Two items need to be included:

  1. The title and version of the source, such as the New Living Bible
  2. The names, verses, chapters, or any numbers associated with the section you’re referring to.


APA Example:

“Then the king asked her, “What do you want, Esther? What is your request? I will give it to you, even if it’s half the kingdom” (Esther 5:5 New Living Translation).

Citing Journals and Articles in APA

Citing journal articles found in print in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of journal article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page range.

APA Example:

Reeve, A. H., Fjeldsa, J., & Borregaard, M. K. (2018). Ecologically flexible endemics dominate Indo-Pacific bird communities. Journal of Biogeography, 45(8), 1980-1982.

Your APA style paper is easy to piece together with the tools and services on Try out our APA citation machine, which structures your references in just a few clicks. If you’re looking for the perfect APA cover page, give our APA title page maker a whirl.

Citing journal articles found online in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of journal article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page range. //

APA Example:

Reeve, A. H., Fjeldsa, J., & Borregaard, M. K. (2018). Ecologically flexible endemics dominate Indo-Pacific bird communities. Journal of Biogeography, 45(8), 1980-1982. //

For more on journals, take a peek at our APA journal page. Or, make your citations in just a few clicks with our APA citation generator.

Citing newspaper articles in print in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article’s title. Title of Newspaper, pp. xx-xx.

APA Example:

Boutilier, A. (2019, May 29). Facebook won’t pull fake content for election: Official says it’s not company’s role to draw line as MPs blast Zuckerberg for not testifying. Toronto Star, p. 1.

Citing newspaper articles found on the Internet in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article’s title. Title of Newspaper. URL

APA Example:

Boutilier, A. (2019, May 28). Facebook refuses to remove false content during Canadian election. The Star.

Kale, S. (2020, March 9). How to keep your hands clean – without getting dry skin. The Guardian. hands-clean-without-getting-dry-skin

Citing magazines read in print in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month or Season). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue), page range.

APA Example:

Freedman, A. (2019, June). How to choose a gaming laptop: You can play your game and take it with you. TechLife Australia, 90, 78-81.

Citing magazine articles read over the internet in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year, Month). Title of magazine article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue), page range. URL

APA Example:

Savage, P. (2019, May). Double dragon: Yakuza Kiwami 2 is a return to form for the singular crime series. PC Gamer, 319, 80.

Citing a Source on the Internet in APA

Citing digital sources in this style is much easier than other styles. If you’re wondering why, it’s because a lot of information isn’t included in the reference.

For most digital sources, only five items are usually needed:

  • The name of the author
  • The date the source was published
  • The title of the source
  • The medium (blog post, audio file, pdf, etc.)
  • The website address

Here’s some more information related to web content:

  1. Only include the medium if it’s unique or if it will help the reader understand the source type.
  2. Include the website address at the end of the citation.
  3. Do not place a period at the end of the website address.

Have a digital source? Need to cite APA? Check out some of the examples below.

Citing a blog in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of posting). Title of post. Blog or Website name. URL

APA Example:

Chockrek, E. (2019, May 29). 7 summer activities that help boost your college applications. EasyBib.

See another example on our APA citation website page.

Citing social media in APA

Here’s the APA template for most social media platforms:

APA Structure:

Last name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Day of posting). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Describe any attachment] [Tweet OR Facebook page OR Instagram photo OR Instagram post]. Site Name. URL


Lem, E. [@lemesther]. (2019, October 2). Spotted @Chegg promo celebration. Ladies who…”leopard.”Cheers to all the upcoming promos. #marketing #UEx. [Image attached [Tweet]. Twitter.

If the name of the individual is unknown or unlisted on the profile (such as Lady Gaga), place the username first, without brackets

APA Example:

Ladygaga. (2019, May 20). I’m so proud of @momgerm for being asked to serve as Goodwill Ambassador for @WHO. The goal of @btwfoundation is [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

If there are emojis, try to recreate them or describe them in brackets.

APA Example:

Hawaii Volcanoes NPS [@Volcanoes_NPS]. (2020, February 26). Half the park is after dark! [flashlight emoji] In addition to dark night skies, evening in the park provides a great chance. [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

For more about citing social media, head to section 10.15 of the Publication manual. 

Citing online encyclopedias & dictionaries – Group author

If you conducted or watched a personal interview and the transcript or audio is not available for the reader, then there really isn’t any point to create a full reference. These types of sources are not recoverable and the reader would be unable to find the interview on their own. Instead, only create a citation in the text of the paper. Use the first initial, middle initial, and last name of the person being interviewed, along with “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.

APA Structure:

Institution or organization name. (n.d.). Entry title. In Title of Website or reference. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

APA Example:

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Doleful. In dictionary. Retrieved March 1, 2020, from

Citing online encyclopedias & dictionaries – Known author

If there is a known author, cite the source this way:

APA Structure:

Last name, F. M. (Date published). Entry title. In F. M. Last name (ed.), In Title of Website or reference. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

APA Example:

Mann, M. E. & Selin, H. (n.d.). Global warming. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved March 1, 2020, from

Citing Wikipedia

Cite a Wikipedia page just like a normal webpage, but use an archived version. Go to the “View history” tab at the top of a Wikipedia page to find these archived versions, their publishing date, and their URL.

APA Structure:

Article title. (Year, Month Day). In Wikipedia. URL

APA Example:

Kinetic energy (2019, December 27). In Wikipedia.

If you want to learn how to cite websites in MLA, click on the link.

An APA generator is available to you on Take the stress out of building the references for your APA style paper and try it out!

While you’re at it, it may be helpful to take a glance at our APA paper template. It can be found on the EasyBib Writing Center page. You can use the APA paper example to help structure your own APA title page and paper.

Citing Media Sources in APA

Citing a song or music listened to online in APA

Modern songs (e.g., that song you heard on the radio this morning) should list the name of the recording artist’s name. Classical music lists the song’s composer (e.g., think Mozart, Beethoven, etc.).

Note: include a URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval (like if they only post their music to SoundCloud or on their own specific website). If the song is available across multiple platforms, no URL is needed.

APA Structure for a modern song:

Artist’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Song’s title [Song].  On Title of album. Publisher(s).

APA Example:

Grande, A. (2019). 7 rings [Song]. On thank u, next. Republic Records.

APA Structure for a classical song:

Artist’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Song’s title [Song recorded by Artist’s Name]. On Title of album. Publisher.

APA Example:

Bach, J. S. (1997). Toccata and Fugue in D minor [Song recorded by William McVicker]. On Great organ classics. Sony Music Entertainment UK Limited.

Sheet music in APA

To cite APA sheet music, cite it exactly the same as a book. If it’s found online, cite it as a website.

Citing streamed videos in APA

Use this format if you’re citing a video found online (such as a YouTube video).

APA Structure:

Person who posted the video’s Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Day of posting or publishing). Video’s title [Video]. URL

APA Example:

Vliegenthart, S. [booksandquills]. (2018, December 3). Books from uni we didn’t hate [Video]. YouTube.

If the name of the individual isn’t available, start with the username, and remove the brackets.

APA Examples:

Chegg. (2018, November 15). One common grammar error to avoid [Video]. YouTube.

Maroon 5. (2018, May 30). Girls like you ft. Cardi B [Video]. YouTube.

If you’re in need of an APA citation machine to do the work for you, check out the homepage on! We even have a free Title Page APA creator on the main page as well!

Citing a film or movie in APA

APA Structure:

Director’s Last Name. F. M. (Director). (Year published). Film’s title [Film]. Publisher(s) or URL

APA Example:

Gerwig, G. (Director). (2017). Lady bird [Video]. IAC Films; Scott Rudin Productions.

Citing Additional Sources in APA

Citing a published thesis or dissertation from a database in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year created). Thesis or Dissertation’s title [Master’s thesis OR Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution]. Name of database or archive.

APA Example:

Schluckebier, M. E. (2013). Dreams worth pursuing: How college students develop and articulate their purpose in life [Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa]. ERIC.

If you’re looking for an APA citation builder to do the work for you, check out’s APA generator!

Citing a conference paper in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Days of Conference). Title of conference paper [Type of presentation]. Conference Name, Location. URL or DOI.

APA Example:

Fowle, M. (2018, September). The entrepreneurial dream: Happiness, depression, and freedom [Conference presentation]. European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreunership, Aviero, Portugal.

Citing an interview in APA

If you conducted or watched a personal interview and the transcript or audio is not available for the reader, then there really isn’t any point to create a full reference. These types of sources are not recoverable and the reader would be unable to find the interview on their own. Instead, only create a citation in the text of the paper. Use the first initial, middle initial, and last name of the person being interviewed, along with “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.

APA Example:

W. I. Ikemoto (personal communication, June 2, 2019)

If the interview is recoverable, include the full reference on the final page of the project. If the interview was found in a magazine, use the magazine structure. If the interview was read on a blog, use the blog structure. Look for the APA headings above that match your specific source type.

Don’t forget, our APA citation machine structures pretty much everything for you. Find it on’s homepage and give our APA citation generator a try.

Didn’t find what you needed? Still a bit confused? Learn more here. You can also take the guesswork out of making your references with our handy APA citation generator, found at the top of this page.

Putting it All Together

You’ve structured your sources correctly, right? You have the periods, italics, and commas where they belong? Capital letters where they’re supposed to be? Great! You’re almost through! The last step is organizing your citations properly on the page. For easy to follow, in-depth instructions on structuring the last page in your project, check out our APA reference page. If you’d like to see a sample APA paper, check out the main guide for this style on!

Before you hit submit, make sure you run your paper through our plagiarism checker. It checks for instances of accidental plagiarism and scans for spelling and grammatical errors. Even if you think you have every verb, adverb, or interjection where it belongs, you may be surprised with what our innovative technology suggests.

Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

Listing of APA templates

Published August 2, 2019. Updated March 10, 2020. 

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a dedicated school library media specialist and one of the in-house EasyBib librarians. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

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There are various citation styles; to illustrate the elements for the citations of different items, I will be utilizing the American Psychological Association (APA) style.


Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Journal Article:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.  (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Each of the item's in your Reference list should be cited in-text at some point. Review the guidelines for the citation style you're required to use. More information about the various citation styles can be found in the box below.


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Looking to format your paper in Chicago style and not sure where to start? Our guide provides everything you need! Learn the basics and fundamentals to creating references and footnotes in Chicago format. With numerous examples and visuals, you’ll be citing in Chicago style in no time.

Footnotes | Website | Book | Journal

Avoid common grammar mistakes and unintentional plagiarism with our essay checker. Receive personalized feedback to help identify citations that may be missing, and help improve your sentence structure, punctuation, and more to turn in an error-free paper.

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Our blog features current and innovative topics to keep you up to speed on citing and writing. Whether you’re an educator, student, or someone who lives and breathes citations (it’s not as uncommon as you might think!), our blog features new and exciting articles to discover and learn from.

Our Writing Center is jam-packed with tons of exciting resources. Videos, infographics, research guides, and many other citation-related resources are found here. Check it out to find what you need to succeed!


Citation apa my check

What is Cite This For Me’s APA Citation Generator?

If you are working on a paper in the APA style, you know that formatting APA citations can be a complicated task that requires a lot of patience. Fortunately, referencing has never been so easy. Introducing your new best friend: the Cite This For Me APA citation generator. Using this automated citation machine to create accurate citations allows students to work smarter, leaving them more time to focus on their studies.

The Cite This For Me powerful citation generator fully-formats all of your APA citations in just a click. So if you’re unsure how to accurately create your citations in the APA format, or you need to cite all of your sources in record time, using the Cite This For Me accurate generator will help ensure you don’t lose valuable points on your work unnecessarily.

This guide provides you with everything you need to know to help ensure that your paper reflects all your hard work. Read ahead for tips on how to structure and present your work according to the APA formatting guidelines, how to avoid charges of plagiarism, and how to cite sources both in-text and in your reference list and bibliography.

Popular APA Citation Examples

Why Do I Need to Cite?

Essentially, citing is the crediting of sources used in academic work. When another source contributes to your work you must acknowledge the original author with an accurate reference, unless it is common knowledge (e.g., the Magna Carta was signed in 1215). Failing to cite all of your sources or citing them incorrectly constitutes plagiarism, which is considered a serious academic offense. It is important to remember that information doesn’t just belong to anyone who happens to stumble upon it. If you are caught plagiarizing it is more than likely that you will lose points on your assignment, or even face expulsion from your university.

APA citation format also stipulates that students and researchers should be wary of a type of plagiarism called “self-plagiarism.” This is when you reuse material that you previously wrote for a new writing assignment without signaling to the reader that you have done so by creating an APA format citation for your work. Presenting your own past work as new scholarship is still plagiarism, and could still have serious consequences.

Aside from avoiding plagiarism, attributing your research to its proper source is crucial in ensuring that your work is firmly anchored in academic tradition. Correctly citing your sources validates the statements and conclusions you make in your work by providing supporting evidence. For many students, citing can be a frustrating process, but it’s an excellent way to enhance the quality of your work and inject it with authority.

Imagine if all the stress of referencing simply vanished. Well, Cite This For Me’s APA citation generator is here to help you make that stress disappear – now you can create in-text citations and reference lists in the APA format without all of the usual frustrations of referencing.

What is the APA Citation Style?

The APA citation style is a parenthetical author-date style, meaning that you need to put the author’s last name and the publishing date into parentheses wherever another source is used in the narrative.

The APA format consists of in-text citations and a reference list, along with guidelines for formatting the paper itself. Both the in-text citations and the reference list can be created in the blink of an eye using the Cite This For Me APA reference generator.

Although primarily used by students and researchers studying the social and behavioral sciences, the APA format is used amongst other scientific publications for its editorial efficiency. The Cite This For Me APA citation generator uses an up to date version of the APA format, helping to ensure accuracy whether you are using the APA format generator for university assignments or are preparing research projects for publishing.

Aside from the APA format, there is a plethora of different citation styles out there – the use of which depends on your discipline, university requirements, your professor’s preference, or the publication you are submitting the work to. It is important to make sure that you are using the correct style – so if you’re unsure, consult your department and follow their guidelines exactly.

It is important to note that APA style citation rules are fundamentally an editorial style, not a writing style per se. An editorial style refers to rules and guidelines a publisher uses to ensure that materials in their publications are presented consistently.

The citation generator above will generate your references in APA format as standard, and can show you how to cite APA sources in a few clicks. You can also sign up to Cite This For Me to select from thousands of widely used global college styles, including individual university variations. So, whether your professor prefers that you use the MLA format, or your discipline requires you to adopt the Chicago style citation, your referencing will be supported. Cite This For Me includes citation generators and handy guides for styles such as ASA, AMA or IEEE.

How Do I Create and Format My Citations?

Ever find yourself searching the web for things like “How to cite a website APA?” Then you’re in the right place. When you reference a source within an APA style paper; whether it is using a direct quote, repurposing an image, or simply referring to an idea or theory, you should:

  • Insert an in-text citation (the author’s surname and the date of publication within parentheses) straight after a direct quote
  • Insert an in-text citation at the end of the sentence where a source has contributed, but was not a direct quote
  • If you have already mentioned the author’s name in the sentence, you only need to insert the date immediately after their surname
  • Include page numbers within the parentheses (after the date), if referring to a particular page or section of the source
  • When citing a source with three to five authors, include all surnames for the first in-text citation, then use the first author’s surname followed by et al. for subsequent citations
  • When citing six or more authors – use the first author’s surname followed by et al. for all citations
  • If you are mentioning both the year and author in the text, don’t include an additional citation in parentheses – unless you are referring to a particular section of the source, in which case you should cite the page number
  • Provide an alphabetical list (ordered by author’s surname) of all sources used, titled ‘References’, on a separate page at the end of the narrative
  • Inclusive page numbers for the electronic version of a print source (i.e., a PDF)
  • Provide your appendices on a separate page after the reference list
  • Use ‘&’ in place of ‘and’ in both in-text citations and full references

Use the Cite This For Me APA citation maker to create citations with ease; this will allow you to add citations to your project, edit on the spot, and export separate in-text citations as well as fully-formatted reference lists.

APA Citation Examples (7th Edition)

Each APA reference must adhere to the rules set forth in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition. The following examples follow guidelines from Chapter 10 of the manual. Here are a few examples for you to get started:

In-text citation APA examples:

    • Page specified, author mentioned in text:

Lutz & Huitt (2010, p. 4) argue that “the statistical significance of …”

    • Page specified, author not mentioned in text:

The results were consistent throughout the study (Fernández-Manzanal, Rodríguez-Barreiro, & Carrasquer, 2007).

The study found that … (Sania et al., 2011)

The data presented …. (“How sleep enhances memory retention”, 2015).

Reference list examples:

    • Book citation, one author, multiple editions:

Hawking, S. W. (1998). A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes (10th ed.). New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.

Tyler, G. (n.d.). Evolution in the systems age. Retrieved from

    • Journal article, three authors, with a DOI:

Fernández-Manzanal, R., Rodríguez-Barreiro, L., & Carrasquer, J. (2007). Evaluation of environmental attitudes: Analysis and results of a scale applied to university students. Science Education, 91(6), 988–1009. doi:10.1002/sce.20218

* Note: For more information on the different types of journal article citations that can be made under APA 7, see section 10.1 of the Publication Manual, pp. 316-321.

    • How to cite a website in APA:

Veterans Affairs Canada. (2019, February 14). Indigenous people in the Second World War.

    • Online newspaper article:

Smith, D. (2019, October 22). The banner, the rings, the season opener: Champion Raptors return on a night like no other. The Toronto Star.

    • Article from an online news website (HuffPost, MSNBC, Vox, etc.):

Wade, L. (2013, March 6). ‘Sunstone’ crystal from British shipwreck may be vikings’ legendary navigation aid. HuffPost.

CrashCourse. (2015, April 30). Mars: Crash course astronomy #15 [Video]. YouTube.

How Do I Format My Reference List?

Drawing on a range of relevant sources in your work proves that you have read widely around your chosen topic, so it’s a surefire way to impress your reader.

To ensure your reader’s ease of comprehension you must adhere to the style’s formatting guidelines. In APA format, a list of all the sources that have directly contributed to your work should be placed on a new page at the end of the narrative and titled ‘References’ (center align the title), otherwise known as an APA works cited list. The references should all have a hanging indentation – the second and subsequent lines of each reference should start ½ inch from the margin.

You may also be required to provide a full APA bibliography. This is a comprehensive list of all the source material you used to complete the assignment, even if it was not cited in the text. It should include any book, journal, article etc. that you may have consulted throughout your research and writing process in order to get a deeper understanding of the subject at hand.

APA Format Example:

Fernández-Manzanal, R., Rodríguez-Barreiro, L., & Carrasquer, J. (2007). Evaluation of environmental attitudes: Analysis and results of a scale applied to university students. Science Education, 91(6), 988–1009. doi:10.1002/sce.20218

Sound like a lot of work? Although the style guidelines are strict in regard to how references should be formatted, the Cite This For Me APA citation machine can help take the weight off your shoulders by quickly compiling your reference list and bibliography.

APA Style Paper Formatting Guidelines (7th Edition)

When following the APA format guidelines, you must pay attention to presentation details such as font type, line spacing, margins and page headers to ensure your work is easily legible. The information below, as well as further formatting details, can be found in Chapter 2 of the APA 7 Publication Manual.

  • 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Easily readable font – Times New Roman recommended, 12pt. size
  • Double-space the entirety of the paper
  • Page numbers in the header, aligned to the right
  • Title of the paper in all capitals, 50 characters or less, in the header on each page of the body (the ‘running head’), aligned to the left. Only include a running head if you’re writing a professional paper
  • The paper should typically include four major sections – Title Page, Abstract, Main Body and References.
  • If infographics (tables, charts) were used in the narrative you should also add Appendices as a separate section at the end of the paper.

APA Title Page

Not all instructors will require a title page, also sometimes called an APA cover page. If they do, include these four parts:

  • Title of your paper
  • Running head (see above section)
  • Author’s/Your name
  • Institutional affiliation

The title of your paper should:

  • Be centered on the page and use title case (a combination of lower and uppercase letters).
  • Not be italicized, bolded, or underlined
  • Use a 12-point font
  • Be a maximum of 2 lines and not more than 12 words long
  • Not include abbreviations

Underneath the title, place the author’s name. If you wrote the paper, put your full name here. There’s no need to include titles or degrees (e.g., Ms., PhD, etc.).

Under the author’s name, place the institutional affiliation. For most students, this would be the name of the school, college or university you are attending. The title, author’s name, and institutional affiliation should all be double spaced. Here’s an example of an APA format title page:

Example title page in APA format

Writing Guidelines

The American Psychological Association also provides some helpful guidelines regarding overall best practices when writing academic and scientific papers. One important thing to be on the lookout for is bias in your writing. For instance, using the word “man” to represent humans as a species is neither scientific nor without potential bias.

Here are some good rules of thumb to help you avoid bias in your paper:

  • Always be specific in your writing and avoid generalizations.
  • Do not label people or test subjects unnecessarily.
  • When writing about participants in your experiment or study, be sure to acknowledge them as such appropriately. Use the term “participants” instead of “subjects.”
  • Use active voice instead of passive voice in your writing. For example, “the participants completed the task” vs. “the task was completed by the participants.”
  • Always be cautious when discussing topics such as sexual orientation, racial and ethnic identity, disabilities, etc.
  • Never change quotations to better serve your own ends or to better fit with your conclusions.

Important Terms for an APA Paper

Have you come across terms such as “abstract” or “appendices” in the manual and been unsure of their meanings? Here are some important terms to know when writing your next APA paper.

  • Abstract – A brief and concise summary of your paper’s contents.
  • Keywords – A list of significant keywords that the reader should be on the lookout for in your paper.
  • Introduction – Generally kicks of the rest of your paper by describing what you’re writing about. In scientific papers, this would outline the problem you are solving and your research strategy.
  • References – An APA reference page is the place where you list each source that you have cited via an APA in-text citation within the body of your paper.
  • Running Head – Running head is the name of APA headings that are used in research papers. They contain the title of the paper, the page number, and the term “Running head.”

A Brief History of the APA Format

APA stands for American Psychological Association, the scientific organization that assembles the publishing manual of the APA format. The style was developed in 1929 by a group of scientists to standardize scientific writing. It was created in the hopes that it would provide a coherent and professional manner of citing sources for students and researchers in the fields of social and behavioral sciences.

The first publication manual of the APA format was published in pursuit of a neat and efficient research formatting style, mainly for editorial purposes. Although some contemporary scientists argued that having such strict regulations restricted personal writing styles, the format has since become one of the most popular referencing styles. Today it is adopted in term papers, research reports, literature reviews, theoretical articles, case studies etc.

What’s New in the 7th Edition of APA Format?

It is important to note that citation styles and referencing formats change over time as they adapt to new source types and trends in academic publishing. APA format is no different, and in the fall of 2019 released the 7th edition of its Publication Manual.

Are you curious to know what the differences are between the 7th and 6th edition of APA style? Here are some of the important updates listed in the 7th edition of APA citing:

  • The location of the source’s publisher no longer needs to be included in the citation.
  • DOIs are formatted as URLs (i.e., and no longer require the label “DOI” preceding them in the reference.
  • When making an APA website citation, URLs no longer need to be preceded by “Retrieved from.” The exception to this is when you include a date of retrieval, which is optional.
  • When making an APA book citation for an ebook, you no longer need to include the device or platform that you read the book on (i.e. “Kindle) is no longer required in the citation.
  • There is more flexibility in the 7th edition regarding APA paper format specifications on font.
  • The running head in an APA format title page no longer requires the words “Running head,” and instead now only requires a page number and a shortened version of your paper’s title.
  • You now need to only use one space after each period in your paper.

Before you switch to the newest version, it is a good idea to confirm with your teacher or instructor that this is the version of the style that they prefer you use.

How do I Create Accurate Citations with the Cite This For Me APA Generator?

Referencing giving you a headache? Let the Cite This For Me APA format generator remove the stress caused by citations by helping to turn in any of your sources into a fully-formatted citation. The generator will create your reference in two parts; an in-text citation and a full reference that is ready to be copied straight into your work.

To unlock the full potential of the APA citation maker, simply login to Cite This For Me multi-platform tool. Use the web platform to add and edit citations, export full projects and individual entries, utilize the add-ons, and save all of your citations in the cloud. Or, you can make use of Cite This For Me for Chrome – the browser extension for Google Chrome that allows you to cite APA sources and instantly create and edit a citation for any online web page, without leaving the one you’re viewing.

Cite This For Me gives students the confidence to achieve their full academic potential by encouraging them to research and cite diverse sources. The APA citation generator can help you cite many different kinds of sources; whether it be a PDF report, podcast, a musical score or many more.

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How to Cite Web Site APA No Author No Date No Page Number

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For the APA Citation Checker to do its job, citations in your paper should roughly follow APA Style guidelines, meaning:

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