Used fish tank

Used fish tank DEFAULT
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1. Fish tank and sump : 6x22 fish tank with 4 foot sump tile bottom 10 mil glass x2 ehein 300w heaters 6 foot light cost over 200 with 2 different settings with aqu ... 14/10/212. filters : for sale ehiem pro 4+250.just over year old.in perfect working order.comes with pipes and some media.new set of sealing rings.inbox with ins ... 14/10/213. £250 Large 6.5ftx2.5ftx2.5ft 1400ltr fishtank for sale cheap along with all equ ... : AYLESHAM, KENT, CT3 3HF Up for sale is my 1400ltr fishtank. Along with it will be 3canister filters, 1 heater 1 air pump 2 T5 dual light ba ... 14/10/214. Marine fish tank including fish, corals, battery back up & seneye v2 : 2.5 years old. Grey cabinet, tank size height 460 ml & 1200 ml depth 600 ml £1000 Please contact for more information or picture ... 14/10/215. Juwel Rio 350 LED South American Cichlids complete set up : Juwel Rio 350 LED complete set up (White) 1X red spot severum (approx 8 inches) 1X gold Severum ( approx 8 inches) 4 x geophagus surinam ... 13/10/216. OASIS FISH AUCTION : 7th November 2021, 11am start Redhouse Community Centre, Sunderland. Contact David for more info.Homemade food available on site... 13/10/217. Leaving the hobby, selling all my equipment £350 FOR THE LOT : 3 aquariums, 2 with stands. 120L + 60L + 24L. All water tight. 4×L +1×S bogwood, 5×L + 7×S redmore rootwood. 30-40 kg of red and black l ... 13/10/218. Aquarium rock : Aquarium rock , all for £25 They is 1 big centre piece and 9 other bits Thanks Adrian 07710631759 Collection from Hartlepool 13/10/219. juwel rio 400 aquarium : juwel rio 400 aquarium setup with t5 lighting and aps 2000 ef+ with built in uv 151cm x 51cm x 80cm 450 litres sad to see it go but too ... 13/10/2110. FISH TANK 130CMX51CMX51CMX12MM : Aquarium for sale: 130cmx51cmx51cmx12mm. 2 holes drilled inlet and over flow. Can be used for marine or frag tank. Used, has scratche ... 12/10/2111. Fish tank aquarium for sale : I have a large 60 gallon approx fish tank, round curved edged (one piece) in great condition with all accessories Open to sensible offer ... 12/10/2112. Four foot metal fish tank stand for sale £40 : Sturdy 4' by 2' by 2' metal fish tank stand. photo available via email or WhatsApp Painted black Blackburn, Lancashire Best to text me ... 12/10/2113. Red Sea Max 130D & stand Southampton : Tank is white & the stand grey. Dimensions: width 24", height 23", & depth 19.5". Holds 130 litres with built in filt ... 11/10/2114. Red Sea Reefer 350 tank, cabinet, sump & return pump : For sale is a Red Sea reefer 350 with sump, cabinet and tmc reef pump 8000 return pump. In good condition with a few cosmetic scratches on ... 11/10/2115. TMC Vecton UV600 steriliser : I have for sale a tmc vecton uv600 steriliser in good working order. Bulb replaced 3 months ago so still 3 months life in the bulb. £40 C ... 11/10/2116. Jecod RW-8 wavemaker x 2 : I have 2 RW-8 wavemakers with a max output of 8000lph. They are in great working order and only being sold as upgraded. £40 each Message ... 11/10/2117. Massive tree stump/bog wood : Cash and collection only from London. Water logged and ready to use. Around 4 foot or more tall if you have it upright. £130. 11/10/2118. AQUARIUM - lots of quality equipment £300 ono : Aquarium **£300** ono Massive air pump High grade heater Seneye alarm included Battery backup included 11/10/2119. Bargain Coffee table Aquarium £150 open to offers : Some damage underneath but water tight. Send email across and I can send photos across :) 110cm by 40cm by 50cm Glass on top is 120cm by 60c ... 10/10/2120. Steel fish tank stand 10x3.5ftx3.5ft : Fish Tank Aquarium Steel Stand 10ftx3.5ftx3.5ft 2900x1000x1000mm. Made of 40x40mm steel sections. Condition is "Used". surface rus ... 10/10/2121. Fluvial light 48 inch up to 55 inch for sale £20 : All bulbs working Collection only Halifax 10/10/2122. 230l tank full set up LOVELY CONDITION : Aquarium full set up. Up for grabs is a full aquarium set up with some Off the best kit on the market. The tank is a aquaone oakstyle, ... 10/10/2123. FISH TANKS AND STAND : 1 ALL GLASS CUBE TANK 22" 2 24"12" 15" 1 STAND FOR ABOVE £100 10/10/2124. 6x2 aquariums4life tank on steel stand : Aquariums4life 6x2 fish tank in white for sale Sump and fx6 underneath, 1 kessil tuna blue light fuval light strip and t4 light unit ontop ... 10/10/2125. JBL 1902 External Power Filter : JBL 1902 external power filter. 1900 lph. With bio balls, ceramic media and foams new spare impeller and main seal ring For aquariums up t ... 10/10/2126. 250 aquaone fish tank : Hi,I am selling my aquaone oakstyle 250l fish tank. Glass is in lovely condition and the cabinet external is perfect, there is A little wate ... 10/10/2127. Large Aquarium 7 Foot, £1200 including fish : 7 ft x 2 ft x 2 ft Aquarium for Sale, only 2 years old, front glass is Opti white and has sliding glass covers, LED lights, 2 heaters, Fluva ... 09/10/2128. All pond solutions uv steriliser ssuv 36 : All pond solutions ssuv 36 uv. Brand new boxed never been out of the box. Bought for my marine tank system but realised its only for fres ... 09/10/2129. Slate breeding cave : For sale is a slate breeding cave, I have made some of these for my adult L239 The Internal Dimensions are approx. 10.0cm deep x 4cm wide x ... 09/10/2130. 7 JBL 2kg co2 gas bottles for sale : Hi, selling my unsealed and boxed up JBl 2kg co2 gas bottle's,for £100 each No less and no offers. Was bought for a 600'gallon violet fus ... 09/10/2131. Practical Fishkeeping mags : IDEAL FOR ANY KEEN AQUARIST. Over 150 mags from Jan 2002 till Dec 2013. Only one missing Mar 2005. Inc all Xmas specials. Only £30. Collect ... 09/10/2132. Cube aquarium : Custom cube aquarium with built in overhead filter compartment allowing great filtration without the need of an external filter as it runs o ... 09/10/2133. Aquaone 245 plus FX6 filter and all fish : I have for sale my white Aquaone 245 4foot fish tank aquarium. Comes with Fluval FX6 filter Tank and filter only 2 years old, all in good ... 09/10/2134. Large tanks wanted : Looking for large tanks 5 x 2 x 2 6 x 2 x2 ideally full set ups but would consider tanks only 08/10/2135. Unwanted tanks and equipment : Experienced aquarist looking for tanks,fish, equipment etc Ideally in Wiltshire but can travel Please call, text or email John 08/10/2136. Aquarium stamds and racking : Looking for the above new fish house Ideally South of England or Wales Cash Waiting 08/10/2137. Bog Wood Wanted : Looking for the above Any shape Any size New Project in new Fish House Cash Waiting South Of England Ideally 08/10/2138. Marine Setup : I am selling my Marine setup with Fish included. Its 6 months old so anyone getting this would be getting basically a brand new setup for a ... 08/10/2139. very large hailea very large 8 outlet air pump,new boxed : very large hailea 8 outlet air pump ideal for pond or aquarium,new boxed retails at £41 asking £30 new boxed,please call if interested tha ... 08/10/2140. very large new 12 inches long air stone : very large new 12" long air stones ideal for pond or large aquarium 2 available £10 each prefer to sell the 2 together. 08/10/2141. new unused ehiem 300 watt heater 20 inches long : new unused ehiem 300 watt heater 20" long,asking £15 no box,collection from Wembley area many thanks. 08/10/2142. Coral rock - large pieces 100 Kg plus : Coral rock - large pieces. Few pieces of artificial. I bought for a project that never evolved. All pieces have been out of water for a few ... 08/10/2143. Fluval Vicenza 180 : Fluval Vicenza 180, 10 months old in immaculate condition, complete setup Heater, air pump sand and selection of artificial plant Walnut i ... 08/10/2144. Fish tanks, filters and other spares - PRICES REDUCED : Hi all, I am having a sort out and have a selection of bits that are for sale. * Fluval 35L fish tank (50x25x30cm) with a new bulb, an ... 05/10/2145. Fluval Roma 240 full set up including Malawi Cichlids : For sale due to house move. Fluval Roma 240 1 year old in perfect condition no scratches or damage. LED lights controlled via bluetooth ... 05/10/2146. Royal Exclusive mini Red Dragon Pump 5000L/H £195.00 : Mini Red Dragon Pump 5000 L/H .usual sign of usage. For Marine & Fresh water.Can be used internally&Externally. Technical data ... 05/10/2147. Oase aquarium styleline 85 : Unwanted gift still in box's unused. £225 ideal xmas present 05/10/2148. Fish house closure : Hi I’ve recently closed down my fish house and with all the fish now gone I have loads of equipment for sale. Tanks of various sizes, air ... 04/10/2149. stand and lid for 8x2x2 FROM ND -STAND&LID ONLY : ND AQUATICS 8X2x2 COMPLETE STAND AND LID only (NO TANK) GOOD CONDITION, FOR QUICK SALE , COLLECTION FORM TW AREA quick sale GB 100.00 ... 04/10/2150. Wanted bare tanks : After 2 90x30x30cm 2 60x30x30cm 6 30x30x30cm Let me know what you have thanks Liverpool 04/10/2151. abyss 4x2 aquarium : 120cmx55cmx55cm Cabinet de assembled for ease of transportation, 3d background, Collection only from Northwich Cheshire, Glass sliders ... 04/10/2152. Fx4 external filter for fish tank aquarium only 6 weeks old in perfect condition : Closed down my tank in the house so no longer needed. All cleaned plus new media and fine foam pad. Ready to go. Collection or delivery if p ... 03/10/2153. Marine led light : Max led light fully working just don't use anymore comes with the box and booklets also has controller £60 ono 02/10/2154. Fluval led wifi controller : Fluval fresh/plant wifi controller . Good condition (boxed) . For pictures whattssup me. Thanks 02/10/2155. Marine rock : Marine rock just be taken out of established tank nicely coloured up. Several good size pieces Collection only Mablethorpe £15.00 02/10/2156. Aquaray led lights : Aquaray led tile lights with controller x2 ideal for marine or tropical tanks comes with rail both blue and white. Both in good working ord ... 02/10/2157. IKS COMPUTER + TEMPERATURE SENSORE £145.00 : IKS Computer Midi + IKS Temperature Sensor For Aquarium, Fish Tank. Very Good Condition as You Can See in The Pictures . ... 01/10/2158. Red Dragon Pump 10m3. £600. : New Virtually (3weeks old from new) 10.000 L/H power use : 95watt inlet fitting size threaded: 63mm. outlet fitting size threade ... 01/10/2159. TUNZE 220-53. £24. : Power Magnet for cleaning of fish tank Glass (6 - 12mm) CONDITION : BRAND NEW . 01/10/2160. Aqua oak tank 80 litre : Aqua oak fish tank 80 litre with hood and stand Good condition still selling  for 429.99 maidenhead aquatics. Asking for 255.00 ... 30/09/2161. 2 x kelo AO100 LED and kessil spectrum controller £260 ono : Have a 2 X Kelo AE100 LED lights to selll comes with allmost new kessil spectrum controller , £260 ono 30/09/2162. Largest Fluval plant 3.0 bluetooth : Fluval aquarium plant LED. Like new. 2 weeks old (not required plants removed) Paid £240 from maidenhead aquatics. Largest 59w LED £1 ... 29/09/2163. Nd Aquatics 7x3x2 tank with stand and a few bits,£550 Ono : Nd aquatics 7ft long x 3ft wide by 2ft high beautiful tank. Comes with stand, air pump with 2x sponge filters, 2 x heaters. Ready to go no ... 28/09/2164. Fluval external 307 filter : Hi I have for sale a fluval 307 brand new still sealed external filter for sale . Price is £120 cash on collection please 28/09/2165. 4kg LIVE (DEAD) REEF ROCK. : Various shapes and sizes suitable for a nano aquarium. Price £8 Payment Cash or PayPal Postage £5.50 tracked and insured. Colle ... 28/09/2166. RADION XR30w GEN 4 PRO : RADION XR30w GEN 4 PRO. One of the best lights you can get! Boxed in almost new condition, very limited use, Mobius compatible. Com ... 28/09/2167. Protein Skimmer Bubblemagus Curve 7 : For sale is a nearly new Bubblemagus Curve 7 Protein Skimmer. Its in immaculate condition and in perfect working order. £110 Collection ... 28/09/2168. Full marine setup (Red Sea Reefer 350) reduced to £650 : I Have for sale a Red Sea Reefer 350 in a good condition. Total volume is 345 litres. The tank comes with: Sump Black cabinet protein sk ... 28/09/2169. Fluval 125 full setup : Fluval 125 litre setup Tank Hood light unit Substrate Filter Heater Looking for £100 27/09/2170. Wanted Male copper axolotl : Looking for Copper Axolotl fry swap for baby lucistic axolotls 2inch and less 14 available please call 07599665204 27/09/2171. Wanted Juwel Vision 180 light unit : Hi as title I’m looking for a Juwel vision 180 light unit either working or not working with Merseyside area. Cheers Ben 27/09/2172. Fluval : Roma 125 complete with Twin lighting with reflectors and spare tubes Heater and sand In good condition other than a few scratches but no ... 27/09/2173. 3/4 x Natural Ocean Rock Tropical, Reef & Malawi/Tanganyikan Aquarium VGC : 3 x Natural Ocean Rocks - 1 x Small - 2 x Large [Heavy] 1 x Large Artificial Natural Ocean Rock - Can be any position you want Diff ... 27/09/2174. Slate breeding cave (SOLD) : For sale is a slate breeding cave, I have made some of these for my adult L200 and L128, and made an extra one to see if there is any inter ... 27/09/2175. AI Hydra 26HD lights : I’ve Two ai hydra 26 hd lights and brackets which have been fixed at the correct height for best par blending lights are in perfect workin ... 27/09/2176. Wanted Juwel Vision 180 light unit : Hi as title I’m looking for a Juwel vision 180 light unit either working or not working with Merseyside area. Cheers Ben 27/09/2177. Evolution Aqua Pro 900 Marine Tank For Sale : 3 Months old. Immaculate condition with No scratches, Adjustable baffles in the sump all pipework intact. Collection only Rainham, Kent. £ ... 27/09/2178. Various fish tanks for sale : I have various fish tanks for sale from my fish house, these are all watertight and bare glass tanks. Length by Width by Height 96” by 2 ... 26/09/2179. 5ft fish tank : 5 ft x 2ft x 2ft aquarium. Solid oak cabinet although has been painted white and then grey but sands down lovely as can see in pic, upgradi ... 26/09/2180. 350L 4ft aquarium + LED + canister filter - SE12 London : Juwel Rio 350 - in good condition. Selling due to house move. Juwel filter has been replaced with JBL 1502e greenline canister filter for ... 25/09/2181. 5ft Aquarium Plus Contents £300 : JUWEL RIO 400 We have owned this tank from new, and is in very good condition. Has 2 twin light fittings - one may need replacing or repairi ... 25/09/2182. Reef EQUIPMENT FOR SALE , reef wave , kelo kessil light, FX6 etc : Hello, I have various equipment to sell from my reef tank breakdown 1 x fluval sea marine light - £80 2 x Kelo AO100 LED lights with ke ... 25/09/2183. Kelo AO100 kesil lights and spectrum controller £280 ONO london : I have a KELO AO100 LED LIGHTS with GOOSENECKS AND SPECTRUM CONTROLLER FOR SALE £280 ono collection from west london Open to sensible o ... 25/09/2184. Juwel 4ft/120cm light unit : Juwel 4ft/120cm T8 working light unit with tubes as pictured plus extras. Juwel reflectors x 6 Arcadia reflector x 1 Juwel flap set for ... 25/09/2185. Aqua oak 155l cube aquarium : I have two available one is painted gloss white and was a marine tank that comes with white gravel and a t8 light no pump or heater after £ ... 24/09/2186. Juwel 2ft/60cm T5 light unit : Juwel T5 working light unit 60cms. £45 Collection only from Chippenham, Wiltshire. 24/09/2187. Coffee table Aquarium £350 open to offers : Fairly large approx 4 ft. Rectangular glass coffee table aquarium. Comes with filter and lights if wanted but will probably need a new (heat ... 23/09/2188. 780lt Aquarium, Fish Tank & Equipment and 10x Blue Zaire frontosa : Complete Tanganyika biotope set up fish tank 780lt.price £3999 watch video on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvYtaEpLJ-s 23/09/2189. 3 x 4ft tanks and rack for sale Halifax - £100 : Due to house move am breaking down fishroom. all measurements in inches and tanks made by Clearseal and have reversible blue backing 2 ... 23/09/2190. 9ftx3ftx32inch tank, stand , sump all running equipment : 9x3x32inch tall with glass lids and hood made by ND aquatics Steel frame stand 8ftx30inch sump Tanks is triple base with 2x weirs back a ... 23/09/2191. Fish tank fish all equipment : 10 discus heater 2 sponge filters and HMA unit plastic plants spare heater and filter wood pick up only will sell fish £45 each or take £5 ... 22/09/2192. 6ft tank with extras : 640ltr tank for sale £500 for pics or anymore information please text me 07840038668 22/09/2193. Bargain £110 Ono TANK AND STAND : Juwel vision 450 fish tank and stand in dark wood. The tank has scratches and only one light unit works hence the price. 21/09/2194. Wanted Deltec MC 500 Protein Skimmer : DELTEC MC 500 SKIMMER FOR MARINE REEF Lancashire area only please will pay cash on collection thanks 21/09/2195. Eheim Vivaline Led 150 Aquarium - Complete Tropical Set Up £275 : Excellent condition, only 2 years old and in perfect working order. Total height 127cm x 50cm deep x 60cm wide. All you will need ... 21/09/2196. REEF TANK BREAKDOWN EQUIPMENT WEST LONDON : Hi I have recently shutdown my reef aquarium and have various equipment to sell they are as follows: 1 x fluval sea marine light - £100 ... 21/09/2197. 4 Foot tank and stand only. 240L : 240L Tank aquarium and stand. 4 foot long. Just the tank and stand. NO light unit. First come first serve. Southampton 21/09/2198. FOR SALE 8FT 28 inches 28 inches FISH TANK AQUARIUM : Comes with stand fluval fx6 and fx5 led lights heater pumps etc etc pick only from Halifax HX3 perfect for large fish like arowana peacock b ... 21/09/2199. Full Set Up 120Litres including Fish : I am reluctantly selling my 120litre aquarium with all inhabitants.. *Tank & Cabinet *Hood & Light *Filter *2 heaters *1 Bris ... 20/09/21100. Fish tank : 8x2x2 approx 800litre fish tank. In great condition no scratches or cracks. Was used as for cichlids. Sliding glass roof panels. Comes compl ... 20/09/21
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Aquarium

Transparent tank of water for fish and water-dwelling species

For other uses, see Public aquarium, Aquarium (disambiguation), Aquaria (video game), and Fishtank (disambiguation).

A 20,000-gallon (76,000 L) tropical reef aquariumstands along the wall behind the reception counters at The Miragein Las Vegas, Nevada.

An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, invertebrates, amphibians, aquatic reptiles, such as turtles, and aquatic plants. The term aquarium, coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning 'water', with the suffix -arium, meaning 'a place for relating to'.[1]

The aquarium principle was fully developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as the numbers of animals did not grow too large.[2] The aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, and published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854.[2] Small aquariums are kept in the home by hobbyists. There are large public aquariums in many cities. Public aquariums keep fish and other aquatic animals in large tanks. A large aquarium may have otters, turtles, dolphins, sharks, and whales. Most aquarium tanks also have plants.[3]

An aquarist owns fish or maintains an aquarium, typically constructed of glass or high-strength acrylic. Cuboid aquaria are also known as fish tanks or simply tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are also known as fish bowls. Size can range from a small glass bowl, a few liters in volume, to immense public aquaria of thousands of liters. Specialized equipment maintains appropriate water quality and other characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents.

History and popularization[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

In 1369, the Hongwu Emperor of China established a porcelain company that produced large porcelain tubs for maintaining goldfish; over time, people produced tubs that approached the shape of modern fish bowls.[4]Leonhard Baldner, who wrote Vogel-, Fisch- und Tierbuch (Bird, Fish, and Animal Book) in 1666, maintained weather loaches and newts.[5] It is sometimes held that the aquarium was invented by the Romans, who are said to have kept sea barbels in marble-and-glass tanks, but this is definitely not true.[6]

Nineteenth century[edit]

In 1832, Jeanne Villepreux-Power, a pioneering French marine biologist, became the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms. In 1836, soon after his invention of the Wardian case, Dr. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward proposed to use his tanks for tropical animals. In 1841 he did so, though only with aquatic plants and toy fish. However, he soon housed real animals. In 1838, Félix Dujardin noted owning a saltwater aquarium, though he did not use the term.[7] In 1846, Anne Thynne maintained stony corals and seaweed for almost three years, and was credited as the creator of the first balanced marine aquarium in London.[8][9] English chemist Robert Warington experimented with a 13-gallon container, which contained goldfish, eelgrass, and snails, creating one of the first stable aquaria. The aquarium principle was fully developed by Warington, explaining that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as their numbers do not grow too large.[2] He published his findings in 1850 in the Chemical Society'sjournal.[10]

The Jardin zoologiqueat the Bois de Boulogneincluded an aquarium that housed both fresh and saltwater animals, 1860 in Paris.

The keeping of fish in an aquarium became a popular hobby and spread quickly. In the United Kingdom, it became popular after ornate aquaria in cast-iron frames were featured at the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1853, the aquarium craze was launched in England by Philip Henry Gosse who created and stocked the first public aquarium in the London Zoo which came to be known as the Fish House.[11] Gosse coined the word "aquarium", opting for this term (instead of "aquatic vivarium" or "aqua-vivarium") in 1854 in his book The Aquariums: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Water.[2] In this book, Gosse primarily discussed saltwater aquaria.[12] In the 1850s, the aquarium became a fade in the United Kingdom.[13] Tank designs and techniques for maintaining water quality were developed by Warington, later cooperating with Gosse until his critical review of the tank water composition. Edward Edwards developed these glass-fronted aquaria in his 1858 patent for a "dark-water-chamber slope-back tank", with water slowly circulating to a reservoir beneath.[14]

"What an Aquarium Should Be" – a humorous 1876 British engraving, apparently showing Thomas Huxleydreaming about sea creatures

Germans soon rivaled the British in their interest. In 1854, an anonymous author had two articles published about the saltwater aquaria of the United Kingdom: Die Gartenlaube (The Garden House) entitled Der Ocean auf dem Tische (The Ocean on the Table). However, in 1856, Der See im Glase (The Lake in a Glass) was published, discussing freshwater aquaria, which were much easier to maintain in landlocked areas.[15] In 1862 William Alford Lloyd, then bankrupt because of the craze in England being over, moved to Grindel Dammthor, Hamburg, to supervise the installation of the circulating system and tanks at the Hamburg Aquarium.[citation needed] During the 1870s, some of the first aquarist societies were appearing in Germany.[16] The United States soon followed. Published in 1858, Henry D. Butler's The Family Aquarium was one of the first books written in the United States solely about the aquarium.[17] According to the July issue of The North American Review of the same year, William Stimson may have owned some of the first functional aquaria, and had as many as seven or eight.[18] The first aquarist society in the United States was founded in New York City in 1893, followed by others.[16] The New York Aquarium Journal, first published in October 1876, is considered to be the world's first aquarium magazine.[19]

In the Victorian era in the United Kingdom, a common design for the home aquarium was a glass front with the other sides made of wood (made watertight with a pitch coating). The bottom would be made of slate and heated from below.[22] More advanced systems soon began to be introduced, along with tanks of glass in metal frames.[22] During the latter half of the 19th century, a variety of aquarium designs were explored, such as hanging the aquarium on a wall, mounting it as part of a window, or even combining it with a birdcage.[23]

Twentieth century[edit]

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This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(June 2019)

Around 1908, the first mechanical aquarium air pump was invented, powered by running water, instead of electricity.[24] The introduction of the air pump into the hobby is considered by several historians of the hobby to be a pivotal moment in its development.[25]

Aquaria became more widely popular as houses had an electricity supply after World War I. Electricity allowed artificial lighting, as well as aeration, filtration, and heating of the water.[26] Initially, amateur aquarists kept native fish (with the exception of goldfish); the availability of exotic species from overseas further increased the popularity of the aquarium.[27] Jugs made from a variety of materials were used to import fish from overseas, with a bicycle foot pump for aeration.[28] Plastic shipping bags were introduced in the 1950s, making it easier to ship fish.[29] The eventual availability of air freight allowed fish to be successfully imported from distant regions.[5] Popular publications started by Herbert R. Axelrod influenced many more hobbyists to start keeping fish.[30] In the 1960s, metal frames made marine aquaria almost impossible due to corrosion, but the development of tar and silicone sealant allowed the first all-glass aquaria made by Martin Horowitz in Los Angeles, CA. The frames remained, however, though purely for aesthetic reasons.[22]

Japan played an increasingly important role in shaping aquarium design in the latter part of the twentieth century, with the aquascaping designs of Takashi Amano influencing fishkeepers to treat home aquariums as aesthetically pleasing compositions, rather than simply as a way of displaying fish specimens.[31]

In the United States, as of 1996, aquarium keeping is the second-most popular hobby after stamp collecting.[32] In 1999, an estimated 9.6 million US households owned an aquarium.[33] Figures from the 2005/2006 APPMA National Pet Owners Survey report that Americans own approximately 139 million freshwater fish and 9.6 million saltwater fish.[34] Estimates of the numbers of fish kept in aquaria in Germany suggest at least 36 million.[32] The hobby has the strongest following in Europe, Asia, and North America. In the United States, 40% of aquarists maintain two or more tanks.[35]

Over time, there has been an increasing appreciation of the usefulness of access to an aquarium to provide potential stress reduction and improvement of mood in people observing aquatic life.[36][37] According to the research of having an aquarium is many health benefits like reduce stress, blood pressure and heart rate improvement, better quality sleep, reduce anxiety and pain, therapy of excited children, Alzheimer's therapy and improve productivity.

Design[edit]

An 80-litre home aquarium

Materials[edit]

Glass[edit]

The very first modern aquarium made of glass was developed in the 19th century by Robert Warrington.[38] During the Victorian age, glass aquariums commonly had slate or steel bottoms, which allowed them to be heated underneath by an open-flame heat source. These aquariums had the glass panels attached with metal frames and sealed with putty. Metal-framed aquariums were still available until the mid-1960s, when the modern, silicone-sealed style replaced them. Acrylic aquariums first became available to the public in the 1970s. Laminated glass is sometimes used, which combines the advantages of both glass and acrylic.[39]

Today, most aquaria consist of glass panes bonded together by 100% silicone sealant,[40] with plastic frames attached to the upper and lower edges for decoration. The glass aquarium is standard for sizes up to about 1,000 litres (260 US gal; 220 imp gal). However, glass is brittle and has very little give before fracturing, though generally the sealant fails first.[39] Aquaria are made in a variety of shapes, such as cuboid, hexagonal, angled to fit in a corner (L-shaped), and bow-front (the front side curves outwards).[41] Fish bowls are generally either made of plastic or glass, and are either spherical or some other round configuration in shape.[citation needed]

Glass aquaria have been a popular choice for many home and hobbyist aquarists for many years. Once silicone sealant became strong enough to ensure a long-term water-tight seal, it eliminated the need for a structural frame. In addition to lower cost, glass aquaria are more scratch resistant than acrylic. Although the price is one of the main considerations for aquarists when deciding which of these two types of aquaria to purchase, for very large tanks, the price difference tends to disappear.[citation needed]

Acrylic[edit]

Acrylic aquaria are now the primary competitor with glass. Prior to the invention of UV stabilization, early acrylic aquaria discolored over time with exposure to light; this is no longer the case. Acrylic is generally stronger than glass, weighs less, and provides a certain amount of temperature insulation. In colder climates or environments, it is easier to achieve and maintain a tropical temperature and requires less capacity from an aquarium heater.[42] Acrylic-soluble cements are used to directly fuse acrylic together.[39] Acrylic allows for the formation of unusual shapes, such as the hexagonal tank.[22] Acrylics are easier to scratch than glass, but unlike scratches in glass, scratches in acrylic can be polished out.[39]

Other materials[edit]

Large aquaria might instead use stronger materials such as fiberglass-reinforced plastics. However, this material is not transparent.[39] Reinforced concrete is used for aquaria where weight and space are not factors. Concrete must be coated with a waterproof layer to prevent the water from breaking down the concrete, as well as preventing contamination of the water by the concrete.[39]

Plywood can also be used when building aquaria. The benefits of using plywood include: lower construction costs, less weight, and better insulation. A popular positioning choice for plywood aquaria is keeping them in a wall. Here the use of plywood is hidden by sinking the aquarium inside the wall. Putting insulation between the two helps with the insulation of a heated tank.[43]

Styles[edit]

Objects used for aquariums include: coffee tables, sinks, gumball machines and even toilets.[44][45] Another such example is the MacQuarium, an aquarium made from the shell of an Apple Macintoshcomputer.[46] In recent years, elaborate custom-designed home aquariums costing hundreds of thousands of dollars have become status symbols—according to The New York Times, "among people of means, a dazzling aquarium is one of the last surefire ways to impress their peers."[44]

Kreisel[edit]

3 jellyfish in water in a cylindrical tank (the wall behind the tank has a floral design)
A typical kreisel tank housing several moon jellyfish

A kreisel tank (kreisel being German for "spinning top" or "gyroscope") is an aquarium shaped like a horizontal cylinder that is designed to hold delicate animals such as jellyfish and newborn seahorses. These aquariums provide slow, circular water flow with a bare minimum of interior hardware to prevent the inhabitants from becoming injured by pumps or the tank itself.[47] The tank has no sharp angles around its sides and keeps the housed animals away from plumbing. Water moving into the tank gives a gentle flow that keeps the inhabitants suspended. Water leaves the tank through a screen which prevents animals from being drawn into the pump intake or overflow line.[citation needed]

There are several types of kreisel tanks. In a true kreisel, a circular tank has a circular, submerged lid. Pseudokreisels are "U" or semicircle shaped, usually without a lid.[48]Stretch kreisels are a "double gyre" kreisel design, where the tank length is at least twice the height. Using two downwelling inlets on both sides of the tank lets gravity create two gyres in the tank. A single downwelling inlet may be used in the middle as well. The top of a stretch kreisel may be open or closed with a lid. There may also be screens about midway down the sides of the tank, or at the top on the sides.[49] It is possible to combine these designs; a circular shaped tank is used without a lid or cover, and the surface of the water acts as the continuation of circular flow.[50]

Biotope[edit]

Another popular setup is the biotope aquarium.[51] A biotope aquarium is a recreation of a specific natural environment. Some of the most popular biotopes are the freshwater habitats of the Amazon and Rio Negro rivers, the African rift lake environments of Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, and saltwater coral reefs of Australia, the Red Sea, and the Caribbean Sea. The fish, plants, substrate, rocks, wood, coral, and any other component of the display should completely match that of the local natural environment. It can be a challenge to recreate such environments, and most "true" biotopes will only have a few (if not only one) species of fish and invertebrates.[citation needed]

Finally, an emerging concept for the home is that of a wall mounted aquarium,[52] some of which are displayed at the Living Art Marine Center.[citation needed]

Aquarium size and volume[edit]

An aquarium can range from a small glass bowl containing less than 1 litre (2.1 US pt) of water to immense public aquaria that house entire ecosystems such as kelp forests. Relatively large home aquaria resist rapid fluctuations of temperature and pH, allowing for greater system stability.[41] Beginner aquarists are advised to consider larger tanks to begin with, as controlling water parameters in smaller tanks can prove difficult.[citation needed]

Small, Unfiltered bowl-shaped aquaria are now widely regarded as unsuitable for most fish. Advanced alternatives are now available.[53] In order to keep water conditions at suitable levels, aquariums should contain at least two forms of filtration: biological and mechanical. Chemical filtration should also be considered under some circumstances for optimum water quality. Chemical filtration is frequently achieved via activated carbon, to filter medications, tannins, and/or other known impurities from the water.[citation needed]

Reef aquaria under 100 litres (26 US gal; 22 imp gal) have a special place in the aquarium hobby; these aquaria, termed nano reefs (when used in reefkeeping), have a small water volume, under 40 litres (11 US gal; 9 imp gal).[54]

Practical limitations, most notably the weight of water (1 kilogram per litre (8.345 lb/U.S. gal; 10.022 lb/imp gal)) and internal water pressure (requiring thick glass siding) of a large aquarium, restrict most home aquaria to a maximum of around 1 cubic metre in volume (1000 L, weighing 1,000 kg or 2,200 lb).[41] Some aquarists, however, have constructed aquaria of many thousands of litres.[55][56]

Public aquariums and oceanariums designed for exhibition of large species or environments can be dramatically larger than any home aquarium. The Georgia Aquarium, for example, features an individual aquarium of 6,300,000 US gallons (24,000,000 l).[citation needed]

Nano aquariums[edit]

A new trend is to have very small aquariums, termed mini aquariums (less than 150 litres or 40 gallons) or nano aquariums (less than 75 litres or 20 gallons). These can be either freshwater or saltwater, and are intended to display a tiny but self-contained ecosystem.[57][58][59]

Components[edit]

Drawing of transparent 3-dimensional rectangle with two boxes and one cylinder above it and one longer, thin cylinder within it. Arrows point from the rectangle long cylinder to the top box, from the top box to the lower box, from the lower box to the other cylinder, from that cylinder back to itself, and from the cylinder to the rectangle.
Filtrationsystem in a typical aquarium: (1) intake, (2) mechanical filtration, (3) chemical filtration, (4) biological filtration medium, (5) outflow to tank

The typical hobbyist aquarium includes a filtration system, an artificial lighting system, an air diffuser and pump, and a heater or chiller depending on the aquarium's inhabitants. Many aquaria incorporate a hood, containing the lights, to decrease evaporation and prevent fish from leaving the aquarium (and anything else from entering the aquarium).[41]

Combined biological and mechanical aquarium filtration systems are common. These either convert ammonia to nitrate (removing nitrogen at the expense of aquatic plants), or to sometimes remove phosphate. Filter media can house microbes that mediate nitrification. Filtration systems are sometimes the most complex component of home aquaria.[60]

Aquarium heaters combine a heating element with a thermostat, allowing the aquarist to regulate water temperature at a level above that of the surrounding air, whereas coolers and chillers (refrigeration devices) are for use anywhere, such as cold water aquaria, where the ambient room temperature is above the desired tank temperature.[41]Thermometers used include glass alcohol thermometers, adhesive external plastic strip thermometers, and battery-powered LCD thermometers.[41] In addition, some aquarists use air pumps attached to airstones or water pumps to increase water circulation and supply adequate gas exchange at the water surface. Wave-making devices have also been constructed to provide wave action.[39]

An aquarium's physical characteristics form another aspect of aquarium design. Size, lighting conditions, density of floating and rooted plants, placement of bog-wood, creation of caves or overhangs, type of substrate, and other factors (including an aquarium's positioning within a room) can all affect the behavior and survival of tank inhabitants.[citation needed]

An aquarium can be placed on an aquarium stand. Because of the weight of the aquarium, a stand must be strong as well as level. A tank that is not level may distort, leak, or crack.[41] These are often built with cabinets to allow storage, available in many styles to match room decor. Simple metal tank stands are also available.[41] Most aquaria should be placed on polystyrene to cushion any irregularities on the underlying surface or the bottom of the tank itself that may cause cracks.[41] However, some tanks have an underframe making this unnecessary.[citation needed]

Another important consideration for aquariums is their electrical usage. Water is expensive to keep heated,[61] along with the lights that many aquariums, especially those with live plants have. New aquarists should also pay close attention to their electrical setup for their aquarium, taking care to setup power connections with drip loops to prevent water from getting to outlets.[62]

Aquarium maintenance[edit]

Large volumes of water enable more stability in a tank by diluting effects from death or contamination events that push an aquarium away from equilibrium. The bigger the tank, the easier such a systemic shock is to absorb, because the effects of that event are diluted. For example, the death of the only fish in an 11-litre (3 US gal; 2 imp gal) tank causes dramatic changes in the system, while the death of that same fish in a 400-litre (110 US gal; 88 imp gal) tank with many other fish in it represents only a minor change. For this reason, hobbyists often favor larger tanks, as they require less attention.

Several nutrient cycles are important in the aquarium. Dissolved oxygen enters the system at the surface water-air interface. Similarly, carbon dioxide escapes the system into the air. The phosphate cycle is an important, although often overlooked, nutrient cycle. Sulfur, iron, and micronutrients also cycle through the system, entering as food and exiting as waste. Appropriate handling of the nitrogen cycle, along with supplying an adequately balanced food supply and considered biological loading, is enough to keep these other nutrient cycles in approximate equilibrium.

An aquarium must be maintained regularly to ensure that the fish are kept healthy. Daily maintenance consists of checking the fish for signs of stress and disease.[63] Also, aquarists must make sure that the water has a good quality and it is not cloudy or foamy and the temperature of the water is appropriate for the particular species of fish that live in the aquarium.

Typical weekly maintenance includes changing around 10–30% or more of the water while cleaning the gravel, or other substrate if the aquarium has one; however some manage to avoid this entirely by keeping it somewhat self-sufficient. A good habit is to remove the water being replaced by "vacuuming" the gravel with suitable implements, as this will eliminate uneaten foods and other residues that settle on the substrate.[64] In many areas tap water is not considered to be safe for fish to live in because it contains chemicals that harm the fish. Tap water from those areas must be treated with a suitable water conditioner, such as a product which removes chlorine and chloramine and neutralizes any heavy metals present. The water conditions must be checked both in the tank and in the replacement water, to make sure they are suitable for the species.

Water conditions[edit]

The solute content of water is perhaps the most important aspect of water conditions, as total dissolved solids and other constituents dramatically impact basic water chemistry, and therefore how organisms interact with their environment. Salt content, or salinity, is the most basic measure of water conditions. An aquarium may have freshwater (salinity below 500 parts per million), simulating a lake or river environment; brackish water (a salt level of 500 to 30,000 PPM), simulating environments lying between fresh and salt, such as estuaries; and salt water or seawater (a salt level of 30,000 to 40,000 PPM), simulating an ocean environment. Rarely, higher salt concentrations are maintained in specialized tanks for raising brine organisms.

Saltwater is usually alkaline, while the pH (alkalinity or acidicity) of fresh water varies more. Hardness measures overall dissolved mineral content; hard or soft water may be preferred. Hard water is usually alkaline, while soft water is usually neutral to acidic.[65]Dissolved organic content and dissolved gases content are also important factors.

Home aquarists typically use tap water supplied through their local water supply network to fill their tanks. Straight tap water cannot be used in localities that pipe chlorinated water. In the past, it was possible to "condition" the water by simply letting the water stand for a day or two, which allows the chlorine time to dissipate.[65] However, chloramine is now used more often and does not leave the water as readily. Water conditioners formulated to remove chlorine or chloramine are often all that is needed to make the water ready for aquarium use. Brackish or saltwater aquaria require the addition of a commercially available mixture of salts and other minerals.

This aquarium features a heated tank and a glass-enclosed top for warmth during winter.

Some aquarists modify water's alkalinity, hardness, or dissolved content of organics and gases, before adding it to their aquaria. This can be accomplished by additives, such as sodium bicarbonate, to raise pH.[65] Some aquarists filter or purify their water through deionization or reverse osmosis prior to using it. In contrast, public aquaria with large water needs often locate themselves near a natural water source (such as a river, lake, or ocean) to reduce the level of treatment. Some hobbyists use an algae scrubber to filter the water naturally.[66]

Water temperature determines the two most basic aquarium classifications: tropical versus cold water. Most fish and plant species tolerate only a limited temperature range; tropical aquaria, with an average temperature of about 25 °C (77 °F), are much more common. Temperate or coldwater aquaria are for fish that are better suited to a cooler environment. Temperature consistency is more important than range. Most organisms are not accustomed to sudden changes in temperatures, which can cause shock and lead to disease.[65] Water temperature can be regulated with a thermostat and heater (or cooler).

Water movement can also be important in simulating a natural ecosystem. Aquarists may prefer anything from still water up to swift currents, depending on the aquarium's inhabitants. Water movement can be controlled via aeration from air pumps, powerheads, and careful design of internal water flow (such as location of filtration system points of inflow and outflow).

Nitrogen cycle[edit]

Main article: Nitrogen cycle

Of primary concern to the aquarist is management of the waste produced by an aquarium's inhabitants. Fish, invertebrates, fungi, and some bacteria excrete nitrogen waste in the form of ammonia (which converts to ammonium, in water) and must then either pass through the nitrogen cycle or be removed by passing through zeolite.[67] Ammonia is also produced through the decomposition of plant and animal matter, including fecal matter and other detritus. Nitrogen waste products become toxic to fish and other aquarium inhabitants at high concentrations.[65][page needed] In the wild, the vast amount of water surrounding the fish dilutes ammonia and other waste materials. When fish are put into an aquarium, waste can quickly reach toxic concentrations in the enclosed environment unless the tank is cycled to remove waste.[65][page needed][68]

The process[edit]

A well-balanced tank contains organisms that are able to metabolize the waste products of other aquarium residents, recreating a portion of the nitrogen cycle. Bacteria known as nitrifiers (genus Nitrosomonas) metabolize nitrogen waste. Nitrifying bacteria capture ammonia from the water and metabolize it to produce nitrite.[citation needed] Nitrite is toxic to fish in high concentrations. Another type of bacteria (genus Nitrospira) converts nitrite into nitrate, a less toxic substance. (Nitrobacter bacteria were previously believed to fill this role. While biologically they could theoretically fill the same niche as Nitrospira, it has recently been found that Nitrobacter are not present in detectable levels in established aquaria, while Nitrospira are plentiful.)[citation needed] However, commercial products sold as kits to "jump start" the nitrogen cycle often still contain Nitrobacter.[citation needed]

Aquatic plants also eliminate nitrogen waste by metabolizing ammonia and nitrate. When plants metabolize nitrogen compounds, they remove nitrogen from the water by using it to build biomass that decays more slowly than ammonia-driven plankton already dissolved in the water. Some hobbyists also use "anoxic filtration," which relies on bacteria that live in low-oxygen environments.[69]

Maintaining the nitrogen cycle[edit]

The nitrogen cycle in an aquarium is only a portion of the complete cycle: nitrogen must be added to the system (usually through food provided to the tank inhabitants), and nitrates accumulate in the water at the end of the process, or become bound in the biomass of plants. The aquarium keeper must remove water once nitrate concentrations grow, or remove plants which have grown from the nitrates.

Hobbyist aquaria often do not have sufficient bacteria populations to adequately denitrify waste. This problem is most often addressed through two filtration solutions: Activated carbon filters absorb nitrogen compounds and other toxins, while biological filters provide a medium designed to enhance bacterial colonization. Activated carbon and other substances, such as ammonia absorbing resins, stop working when their pores fill, so these components have to be replaced regularly.

New aquaria often have problems associated with the nitrogen cycle due to insufficient beneficial bacteria.[70] Therefore, fresh water has to be matured before stocking them with fish. There are three basic approaches to this: the "fishless cycle", the "silent cycle" and "slow growth".

In a fishless cycle, small amounts of ammonia are added to an unpopulated tank to feed the bacteria. During this process, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels are tested to monitor progress. The "silent" cycle is basically nothing more than densely stocking the aquarium with fast-growing aquatic plants and relying on them to consume the nitrogen, allowing the necessary bacterial populations time to develop. According to anecdotal reports, the plants can consume nitrogenous waste so efficiently that ammonia and nitrite level spikes seen in more traditional cycling methods are greatly reduced or disappear. "Slow growth" entails slowly increasing the population of fish over a period of 6 to 8 weeks, giving bacteria colonies time to grow and stabilize with the increase in fish waste. This method is usually done with a small starter population of hardier fish which can survive the ammonia and nitrite spikes, whether they are intended to be permanent residents or to be traded out later for the desired occupants.

The largest bacterial populations are found in the filter, where is high water flow and plentiful surface available for their growth, so effective and efficient filtration is vital. Sometimes, a vigorous cleaning of the filter is enough to seriously disturb the biological balance of an aquarium. Therefore, it is recommended to rinse mechanical filters in an outside bucket of aquarium water to dislodge organic materials that contribute to nitrate problems, while preserving bacteria populations. Another safe practice consists of cleaning only half of the filter media during each service, or using two filters, only one of which is cleaned at a time.

Biological load[edit]

The biological load, or bioload, is a measure of the burden placed on the aquarium ecosystem by its inhabitants. High biological loading presents a more complicated tank ecology, which in turn means that equilibrium is easier to upset. Several fundamental constraints on biological loading depend on aquarium size. The water's surface area limits oxygen intake. The bacteria population depends on the physical space they have available to colonize. Physically, only a limited size and number of plants and animals can fit into an aquarium while still providing room for movement. Biologically, biological loading refers to the rate of biological decay in proportion to tank volume. Adding plants to an aquarium will sometimes help greatly with taking up fish waste as plant nutrients. Although an aquarium can be overloaded with fish, an excess of plants is unlikely to cause harm. Decaying plant material, such as decaying plant leaves, can add these nutrients back into the aquarium if not promptly removed. The bioload is processed by the aquarium's biofilter filtration system.

Calculating capacity[edit]

Limiting factors include the oxygen availability and filtration processing. Aquarists have rules of thumb to estimate the number of fish that can be kept in an aquarium. The examples below are for small freshwater fish; larger freshwater fishes and most marine fishes need much more generous allowances.

  • 3 cm of adult fish length per 4 litres of water (i.e., a 6 cm-long fish would need about 8 litres of water).[71]
  • 1 cm of adult fish length per 30 square centimetres of surface area.[72]
  • 1 inch of adult fish length per US gallon of water.[71]
  • 1 inch of adult fish length per 12 square inches of surface area.[72]

Experienced aquarists warn against applying these rules too strictly because they do not consider other important issues such as growth rate, activity level, social behaviour, filtration capacity, total biomass of plant life, and so on.[73] It is better to apply the overall mass and size of a fish per gallon of water, than simply the length. This is because fish of different sizes produce quite differing amounts of waste. Establishing maximum capacity is often a matter of slowly adding fish and monitoring water quality over time, following a trial and error approach.

Other factors affecting capacity[edit]

An academic aquarium at a university, using a variety of tank sizes and styles to care for different fish.

One variable is differences between fish. Smaller fish consume more oxygen per gram of body weight than larger fish. Labyrinth fish can breathe atmospheric oxygen and do not need as much surface area (however, some of these fish are territorial, and do not appreciate crowding). Barbs also require more surface area than tetras of comparable size.[65]

Oxygen exchange at the surface is an important constraint, and thus the surface area of the aquarium matters. Some aquarists claim that a deeper aquarium holds no more fish than a shallower aquarium with the same surface area. The capacity can be improved by surface movement and water circulation such as through aeration, which not only improves oxygen exchange, but also waste decomposition rates.[65]

Waste density is another variable. Decomposition in solution consumes oxygen. Oxygen dissolves less readily in warmer water; this is a double-edged sword since warmer temperatures make fish more active, so they consume more oxygen.[65]

In addition to bioload/chemical considerations, aquarists also consider the mutual compatibility of the fish. For instance, predatory fish are usually not kept with small, passive species, and territorial fish are often unsuitable tankmates for shoaling species. Furthermore, fish tend to fare better if given tanks conducive to their size. That is, large fish need large tanks and small fish can do well in smaller tanks. Lastly, the tank can become overcrowded without being overstocked. In other words, the aquarium can be suitable with regard to filtration capacity, oxygen load, and water, yet still be so crowded that the inhabitants are uncomfortable.[74]

For planted freshwater aquariums, it is also important to maintain a balance between the duration and quality of light, the amount of plants, CO2 levels and nutrients. The amount of fish on the tank can also affect the nutrients levels. For a given amount of light, if there is insufficient number of plants or insufficient CO2 to support the growth of those plants, so as to consume all the nutrients in the tank, the result would be algae growth. While there are fishes and invertebrates that could be introduced in the tank to clean up this algae, the ideal solution would be to find the optimal balance between the above-mentioned factors. Supplemental CO2 can be provided,[75] whose quantity has to be carefully regulated, as too much CO2 may harm the fishes.[original research?]

Aquarium classifications[edit]

From the outdoor ponds and glass jars of antiquity, modern aquaria have evolved into a wide range of specialized systems. Individual aquaria can vary in size from a small bowl large enough for only a single small fish, to the huge public aquaria that can simulate entire marine ecosystems.[citation needed]

One way to classify aquaria is by salinity. Freshwater aquaria are the most popular due to their lower cost.[76] More expensive and complex equipment is required to set up and maintain marine aquaria. Marine aquaria frequently feature a diverse range of invertebrates in addition to species of fish.[60][76]Brackish water aquaria combine elements of both marine and freshwater fishkeeping.[76] Fish kept in brackish water aquaria generally come from habitats with varying salinity, such as mangrove swamps and estuaries. Subtypes exist within these types, such as the reef aquarium, a typically smaller marine aquarium that houses coral.[76]

Another classification is by temperature range. Many aquarists choose a tropical aquarium because tropical fish tend to be more colorful.[76] However, the coldwater aquarium is also popular, which includes fish from temperate areas worldwide.[76]

Aquaria may be grouped by their species selection. In a community tank, several non-aggressive species live peacefully. In these aquaria, the fish, invertebrates, and plants probably do not originate from the same geographic region, but tolerate similar water conditions. Aggressive tanks, by contrast, house a limited number of species that can be aggressive toward other fish, or are able to withstand aggression well. Most aquarists maintaining marine tanks and tanks housing cichlids have to take species aggressiveness into account when stocking. Specimen tanks usually only house one fish species, along with plants—sometimes those found in the fish species' natural environment—and decorations simulating a natural ecosystem. This type is useful for fish that cannot coexist with other fish, such as the electric eel, as an extreme example. Some tanks of this sort are used simply to house adults for breeding.[citation needed]

Biotope aquaria is another type based on species selection. In it, an aquarist attempts to simulate a specific natural ecosystem, assembling fish, invertebrate species, plants, decorations and water conditions all found in that ecosystem. Public aquaria often use this approach. Biotope aquaria simulates the experience of observing in the wild. It typically serves as the healthiest possible artificial environment for the tank's occupants.[citation needed]

Public aquaria[edit]

Main article: Public aquarium

Most public aquarium facilities feature a number of smaller aquaria, as well those too large for home aquarists. The largest tanks hold millions of gallons of water and can house large species, including sharks or beluga whales, which typically couldn't be housed properly in the home aquarium. Dolphinaria are specifically for dolphins. Aquatic and semiaquatic animals, including otters and penguins, may also be kept by public aquaria. Public aquaria may also be included in larger establishments such as a marine mammal park or a marine park. These are very popular around the world, especially with a new emergence in the Middle East.

Virtual aquariums[edit]

A virtual aquarium is a computer program which uses 3D graphics to reproduce an aquarium on a personal computer. The swimming fish are rendered in real time, while the background of the tank is usually static. Objects on the floor of the tank may be mapped in simple planes so that the fish may appear to swim both in front and behind them, but a relatively simple 3D map of the general shape of such objects may be used to allow the light and ripples on the surface of the water to cast realistic shadows. Bubbles and water noises are common for virtual aquariums, which are often used as screensavers.

The number of each type of fish can usually be selected, often including other animals like starfish, jellyfish, seahorses, and even sea turtles. Most companies that produce virtual aquarium software also offer other types of fish for sale via Internet download. Other objects found in an aquarium can also be added and rearranged on some software, like treasure chests and giant clams that open and close with air bubbles, or a bobbing diver. There are also usually features that allow the user to tap on the glass or put food in the top, both of which the fish will react to. Some also have the ability to allow the user to edit fish and other objects to create new varieties.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Used Aquariums

Getting a Used Fish Tank Ready for Use

(The First Tank Guide)

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The Used Aquarium

A lot of people get used aquariums, and often they realize (frequently after making the purchase) that they don't know what they need to do with this used aquarium to get it ready for use again. Unfortunately, these used aquarium usually don't have instructions available any more, so much of the equipment may be a mystery and may require some research and puzzling out.

Fortunately, the answer is mostly simple. You just have to figure out which category your used aquarium fits into:

  • The used tank that is still (or was just) set up and still has equipment - and may even come with fish.
  • The tank that was just up and running, but no longer has all the equipment.
  • The used tank that has been in disuse for an unknown amount of time.

In any of these cases, the used fish tank may have been purchased at a garage sale or thrift store (well, if it was purchased at a thrift store, it probably wasn't set up with fish in it...), or you may have inherited this aquarium from an old roommate who did not want to move it when she moved, or you may have gotten it from a friend, neighbor, or family member who no longer wanted the fish tank.

The Used Tank That Is Still (or Was Just) Set Up and Still Has Equipment - and May Come with Fish

I'll address this one first, mostly because I already wrote these instructions once. ;)

If the tank is set up, or has just been torn down, and still has all the equipment, you want to treat it like a tank you are moving with, especially if you are getting fish with this tank. If you are lucky, you can get some of the water that was in the tank and move it with you, to minimize the stress to the biological filter, fish, and plants.

I recommend you follow my recommendations for moving your aquarium to get a used tank of this sort up and going in your home.

The Tank That Was Just Up and Running, but No Longer Has All the Equipment

Sometimes you get a tank that was just up and running, but either you only purchased the tank, or the previous owner disposed of (or is otherwise using) the equipment that was being used on this tank.

In this case, you probably want to take the tank home and rinse it thoroughly with cool, running tap water, as this will remove any debris left in the tank. You may also want to wipe the tank out with a clean cloth.

Once you have done this, you will want to follow my recommendations for setting up your aquarium or upgrading to a larger aquarium as appropriate to get your new tank up and running.

Remember, it is very important that you not use any cleansers, solvents, detergents, perfumes, or other harmful chemicals when rinsing out the used tank, as these can leave residue that may remain in the tank long-term and could cause significant problems for your fish in the long run.

The Used Tank That Has Been in Disuse for an Unknown Amount of Time

If you have purchased an aquarium that has been unused for a long time, or if you are pulling a tank out of your own storage after a long period of disuse, the first thing you will want to do is check the tank for leaks. This will greatly reduce the risk that you will set up your tank and then meet the disaster of a leak or spill in your home.

Once you have leak tested your aquarium you will want to clean it.

In most cases, you can just rinse the tank with cool, running tap water to remove any debris, and then wipe it out with a clean cloth. If your tank has already been sitting for several days with some amount of water in it while you were checking for leaks, then probably almost any debris that was in the tank has had a chance to soak loose and will probably wipe away easily.

Often people are concerned about lime, or hard water deposits, on the glass in tanks that have been unused for more than a couple of days. Generally, you should not have to worry about these. If you have been through your leak testing for several days, you have probably noticed that these water deposits become translucent very quickly, and will almost always become clear over a few weeks under water.

Once you have rinsed the tank out, tested for leaks, and wiped it off, you should be ready to set up the tank.

I would recommend disposing of any filter media, or anything highly porous or with a high surface area, such as aquarium gravel and some decorations. You probably also want to dispose of any plastic that may have become brittle over time. All of these items should be replaced with new, because some of them will no longer be usable, and others may have been exposed to harmful to toxic chemicals that will be difficult or impossible to detect and remove.

If you purchased a used filter that requires cartridges or special media with your used aquarium, check with your local pet store to see if they stock the media for that filter and either pick up replacements or select a replacement filter that they stock the cartridges for.

Otherwise, make sure you rinse all your equipment thoroughly with cool, running tap water, and you should be ready to get your used tank up and running. I suggest you follow my recommendations for setting up your aquarium or upgrading to a larger aquarium as appropriate to get your used tank up and running.




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Fish tank used

In a pose, whore. In a pose, creature. Taking the whip, the Boss beat the old woman sobbing on the floor. Having finally become brutal, the man sank to the floor, turned his crying mother onto his back, pulled her legs apart. With force and threw her legs over his shoulders.

LIVE CORAL REEF AQUARIUM

I began to hastily and rhythmically move, but I lost my excitement, periodically slowing down. - Is that all. she asked.

Now discussing:

It all pissed her off. At the beginning she was silent, but gradually she began to shout at me, and one day she took it and hit me. I didnt know how to react, its my fault. well, I stopped talking and endured it. The day before yesterday was a hot summer day and we decided to go to the river to sunbathe.



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