## Lesson 5: Variables

### Overview

In this lesson students learn how to use variables to label a number in their program or save a randomly generated value. Students begin the lesson with a very basic description of the purpose of a variable. Students then complete a level progression that reinforces the model of a variable as a way to label or name a number. Students use variables to save a random number to see that variables actually store or save their values, allowing them to use the same random number multiple times in their programs.

### Purpose

This lesson is the first time students will see variables in the course, and they are not expected to fully understand how variables work by its conclusion. Students should therefore leave this lesson knowing that variables are a way to label a value in their programs so that they can be reused or referenced later. In the following lesson students will be introduced to sprites, which need to be referenced by a variable.

Using variables to manipulate drawings is a surprisingly challenging skill that requires a great deal of forethought and planning. While students will use or modify many programs in this lesson, they are not expected to compose programs that use variables to modify the features of a drawing. In later lessons, students will expand their understanding of variables and more advanced ways they can be used.

### Agenda

### Warm Up (10 Mins)

### Activity (30 Mins)

### Wrap Up (5 Mins)

### View on Code Studio

### Objectives

### Students will be able to:

- Identify a variable as a way to label and reference a value in a program
- Use variables in a program to store a piece of information that is used multiple times
- Reason about and fix common errors encountered when programming with variables

### Preparation

- Review the level progression in Code Studio

### Links

**Heads Up!** Please make a copy of any documents you plan to share with students.

### For the Students

### Vocabulary

**Variable**- A label for a piece of information used in a program.

### Introduced Code

### Support

### Lesson Forum

### Report a Bug

## Lesson 5: Collecting Treasure with Laurel

### Overview

In this series of puzzles, students will continue to develop their understanding of algorithms and debugging. With a new character, Laurel the Adventurer, students will create sequential algorithms to get Laurel to pick up treasure as she walks along a path.

### Purpose

In this lesson, students will be practicing their programming skills using a new character, Laurel the Adventurer. When someone starts *programming* they piece together instructions in a specific order using something that a machine can read. Through the use of programming, students will develop an understanding of how a computer navigates instructions and order. Using a new character with a different puzzle objective will help students widen their scope of experience with sequencing and algorithms in programming.

### Agenda

### Warm Up (5 min)

### Bridging Activity - Programming (10 min)

### Main Activity (30 min)

### Wrap Up (5 - 10 min)

### View on Code Studio

### Objectives

### Students will be able to:

- Order movement commands as sequential steps in a program.
- Represent an algorithm as a computer program.
- Develop problem solving and critical thinking skills by reviewing debugging practices.

### Preparation

### Links

**Heads Up!** Please make a copy of any documents you plan to share with students.

### For the Teachers

### For the Students

### Vocabulary

**Algorithm**- A list of steps to finish a task.**Program**- An algorithm that has been coded into something that can be run by a machine.**Programming**- The art of creating a program.

### Support

### Report a Bug

## Lesson 5: Board Events

### Overview

This lesson transitions students from consider the Circuit Playground as strictly an output device towards using it as a tool for both input and output. Starting with the hardware buttons and switch,sing the hardware buttons and switch, students learn to use , analogously to , in order to take input from their Circuit Playgrounds.

### Purpose

This lesson marks the transition from using the board solely as an output device to using it for both input and output. The block works much like , with the most significant different being that the first parameter is a board object (a variable) while takes a UI element ID (a string).

### Assessment Opportunities

**Attach an event handler to a hardware input**Code Studio: See rubric on bubble 4.

**Choose the appropriate event for a given scenario**Wrap Up: Students should describe different scenarios that would be more appropriate for different events.

### Agenda

### Warm Up (5 min)

### Activity (45 min)

### Wrap Up (2 min)

## CSD Unit 3 Lesson 5 Variables- Part 9 Debug Naming Variables

@katieacor, Did you try the link above that shows you how to find an example solution (if you have a teacher account). As we sometimes have students on the forum, we don’t usually post answers in the forum posts, but it does involve setting a single variable.

Here’s the link again to show you how to find the answer keys as long as you are logged in to your teacher account.

Code.org### How do I see the solutions for all the puzzles?

If you have a teacher account, you should be able to see the answers to each puzzle using the "See a solution" button to the right when you're signed in. Click on that blue arrow to bring

Let us know if you can’t find it.

Mike

## Code.org lesson answers 5

## Lesson 5: Programming in Artist

### Warm Up (10 min)

### Introduction

Show the students one or both of the following videos as an introduction to angles:

Artist Introduction - Student Video ( minutes long)

Turns & Angles - Student Video (2 minutes long)

Use the Turns & Angles - Student Handout to show the students interior versus exterior angles for different shapes. This document can be used as a hand out or you can choose to print it out as a poster for students to refer to.

#### Ask:

Discuss the square and triangle shapes from the document.

- How would you code a computer to draw that shape?
- What order do the instructions need to be in?

Tell the students that in these puzzles they will be moving a character who leaves a line everywhere he goes. The students will be writing code that gets the character to draw various shapes, including a square.

### Main Activity (30 min)

### Course F Online Puzzles - - Website

In this set of puzzles, the artist will no longer be constrained to 90 degree angles. Having physical protractors available can be help students better visualize the angles they need. Otherwise, the stage provides images of the angles as the student selects which angle to use. (Please note: Angle choices are limited to two inside of the dropdown menu, reducing the number of options students have to work through.)

Before sending the students to the computers to work on the puzzles, it might be beneficial to give a brief presentation of how to use the tools in this level. We recommend puzzle 5 as a good puzzle to show how to use the protractor online.

The eighth puzzle asks the students to draw a 6 sided polygon. This might be challenging for some students. We recommend getting the students to try a few times, ask a peer, then ask the teacher for help. Below is an image that might be helpful for the students.

### Wrap Up (10 - 15 min)

### Journaling

Having students write about what they learned, why it’s useful, and how they feel about it can help solidify any knowledge they obtained today and build a review sheet for them to look to in the future.

#### Journal Prompts:

- What was today’s lesson about?
- How did you feel during today’s lesson?
- What are the interior angles that make up a square. What about for a triangle?
- Sketch a simple shape on your paper and imagine the code used to draw it. Can you write that code out next to the shape?

### Extended Learning

Use these activities to enhance student learning. They can be used as outside of class activities or other enrichment.

**The Copy Machine**

- Give students two pieces of paper
- On one sheet draw a simple image, using straight lines only.
- On the second sheet draw instructions for recreating that image commands to move straight and turn at various angles.
- Trade instruction sheets and attempt to recreate the image using only the provided instructions.

### Standards Alignment

#### View full course alignment

#### CSTA K Computer Science Standards ()

### Cross-curricular Opportunities

This list represents opportunities in this lesson to support standards in other content areas.

#### Common Core English Language Arts Standards

#### Common Core Math Standards

#### Next Generation Science Standards

## Lesson 5: Binary Numbers

### Overview

In this lesson, students will gain more familiarity with binary numbers. The lesson will transition away from the number systems that students created in the the circle-triangle-square activity, and begin to focus on representing numeric values using the binary number system. Though students have communicated with binary before, developing a *number system* is a little different. Previously, students mapped patterns of binary values to a small set of fixed messages. A number system is infinite, and also has rules for counting - or how to get from one value to the next.

### Purpose

Number systems help us express and reason about quantities. Early number systems were merely a system of tallies that allowed humans to record and perform simple arithmetic with values. The number system we use today uses the concept of place value to allow us to express any value we wish by combining only 10 symbols (0, 1, 2 …). We therefore call it a “base 10” number system. When developing a number system for a computer, we only have two symbols available to us, corresponding with the two states of a single bit. However, the power of place value allows our binary or “base 2” number system to express any value we wish.

When using this binary representation of numbers, certain values (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.) are seen repeatedly. When written in binary, these values are 1, 10, , , , and so on, and so are the incremental place values in this binary number system.

### Agenda

### Getting Started (15 mins)

### Activity (30 mins)

### Wrap-up

### Assessment

### Extended Learning

### View on Code Studio

### Objectives

### Students will be able to:

- Describe how to use bits to create a functioning number system
- Understand the relationship between the powers of 2 and the number of bits needed to express a number of a certain magnitude. e.g. How many bits do I need to represent the number “15”, or “32”, or “”?
- Determine, for a given number of bits, both the number of possible numbers that can be represented and also the range of those numbers

### Preparation

### Links

**Heads Up!** Please make a copy of any documents you plan to share with students.

### For the Teachers

### For the Students

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