Q. What were the specs on the M-110 and the M-107?
A. There were different models and there are several websites that have specs on the M-107 and M-110 but generally, it weighed approximately 31.2 tons and had a top speed of 34mph. It had a cruising range of 325 miles and was powered by diesel fuel (1.3 mpg) with a capacity of 300 gallons. Its length was 35.3 ft. and its height was 10.3ft. Some Battery mechanics removed governors and made other modifications strictly not in the books to boost speed.
Q. How many men were in a gun section?
A. Although the specs called for 13 men,
• Gunner on gun mount left
• Gunner on gun mount right
• Two loaders on gun mount right
• Driver in hull left front
• 8 in support vehicle
there usually would be as many 7 men (a Section Chief, Gunner, Ass't Gunner, Driver, three or four ammo humpers) or as few as 4 (a gunner, asst gunner, powder and projo humpers).
Q. How many were inside the gun when it was moved?
A. There is only room inside for driver.
Q. How long did it take to set up after a move?
A. Set up could be 20 minutes for a hip shoot (A hip shoot is when they stop at the first clear area to set up their guns; fire off one round to check aim and make corrections; then the entire battery fires off rounds. The battery then quickly packs up and continues on to their scheduled position) after finding battery center and using an aiming post. For a more permanent firebase set up, it could be a few hours preparing a parapet with a berm to dig in the hydraulic spade. Some parapets had wood timbers for the tracks to rest on while using the berm to back up into. The Seabees built parapets at Gia Le for the 83rd upon moving north to Camp Eagle from down south.
Q. What was the range of the 8-inch howitzer?
A. The range varied from 16,800 meters (10.5 miles) to 30,000 meters (18.6 miles) when equipped with a rocket-assisted projectile. The 8-inch was the most accurate in the Army inventory. The M-110 was invented by a mistake with the wrong dimensions put in the lands and grooves of the 8-inch tube. It worked so well during the test that a round could be dropped in a 55-gallon drum 12 miles away after the third shot and adjustment.
Q. What was the range of the M-107 175-mm gun?
A. The M-107's combat experience with the US military was almost entirely limited to the Vietnam War. There it proved its effectiveness by having one of the longest ranges of any fielded mobile artillery piece in the Cold war, able to launch a 147 lb (67 kg) projectile out to 21 miles (33 km). This range advantage, along with the ability to rapidly move from its last position, made it an effective weapon for destroying enemy Command, Control, and Communications, and supply trains behind the enemy lines while evading counter-battery fire against even the longest-range Soviet counterparts, as was proven at Khe Sanh.
In service in RVN, the 175-mm SP gun was distinguished both by its long range and by its inaccuracy at longer range. The gun was assigned to Corps artillery units and a number of M-107/M-110 composite units were formed, allowing the option of responding with the longer range M-107 or the more accurate M-110. The tube on the M-107 required changing after approximately 300-400 rounds although later in the Vietnam war, new tubes with longer lives were introduced.
Q. What was the rate of fire?
A. The M-110's rate of fire is 3 rounds per minute when at maximum, and 1 round per 2 minutes with sustained fire and the M-107's rate of fire is 1 round per minute when at maximum, and 1 round per 2 minutes with sustained fire.
Q. What was the Time of Flight (TOF) for a 175-mm and an 8-inch projectile at maximum range?
A. Time of flight (TOF) is the duration in which a projectile travels through the air from firing time to denotation. TOF was influenced by many factors such as the angle of fire (high or low), projectile weight (3, 4, or 5 square), and the charge used. Other influencing factors included air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and air density. The rotation of the earth also influenced a projectile in flight to some extent. The charge, projectile weight, powder temperature, and tube wear influenced the velocity of the round as it left the tube. A higher velocity meant a shorter TOF; conversely, a lower velocity meant a longer TOF.
Q. What type of Ammo was used for the 8-inch?
A. Ammunition for the 8-inch included High Explosive (HE), Controlled Fragmentation (COFRAM) and nuclear projectiles. The COFRAM round (sometimes called firecracker or grenade round) contained 108 bomblets that would be ejected by a Time Fuze which would cause the bomblets to be ejected and spread and explode over a large area in "bouncing-betty" fashion almost simultaneously. This round was very effective against large groups of personnel.
High Explosive (HE) rounds could be fused with fuses Quick (commonly called PD for Point Detonating and could be set to delay), Time (mechanical time) and Variable Time (VT).
Nuclear rounds weighed 242 pounds. A nuclear 8-inch round was blue on the bottom one-third and the top two-third was brass.
Q. What type of Ammo was used for the 175-mm?
A. Only High Explosive (HE) projectiles were used on the 175-mm guns.
Click here for a picture of an 8-inch and 175mm projectile (Courtesy of Dan O'Brien).
Click here and here for more specs on the 175mm projectile (Courtesy of Dennis Blalock).
Q. What was the weight of the projectiles?
A. An 8-inch projectile weighed 200 lbs. and a 175-mm projectile weighed 147 lbs (Note: there are multiple different sources on the 175-mm projectile weight. While most indicate 147 lbs, some indicate 174 lbs but this is thought to be a typo or transposing of numbers. Click here to see pages (in PDF format) from the Army Ammunition Technical Manual (courtesy of Bill Burke) for confirmation of the 147 number. Click here to view the full Army Ammunition Technical Manual).
Q. Were all powder bags the same?
A. The powder bags were varied in length, and numbered or might have been lettered, in order to maintain the same start angle of tube, and using different bags to add or subtract the distance of the called in fire mission. There was also a difference between the High Explosive (HE) and nuclear powder bags, both in appearance and composition. For more on the Propellant charge, click here (Courtesy of Dennis Blalock).
175mm Gun (Courtesy of Dennis Blalock)
"We called them zones 1, 2,and 3. When FDC said zone 1, we took 2, 3 from the charge and only loaded zone 1, or if FDC said zone 2, we used 1 & 2. If zone 3 we used 1,2,3, with a bore reducer jacket. The weight of zones 1, 2 & 3 was 58lbs (just the powder) , but container, powder, packing and primer and all according to the manual was 96lbs"
8in howitzer (Courtesy of Dennis Blalock)
"If FDC said green bag charge 3 you only loaded green bag charges1, 2, 3 and you discarded 4, 5. If charge 6, you were told white bag charge 6 and you loaded white bag charges 5 & 6 and you discarded 7
8in howitzer green bag is charge1 thru 5
8in howitzer white bag charge 5 thru 7
8in howitzer white bag charge 8"
Q. What determined how many powder bags were used?
A. The number of bags to be used was based primarily on the range to target and the angle of fire (low-angle or high-angle).
For the 8-inch, there was two types of power bags, Green bag and White bag. Green bags were numbered 1 through 5; White bags were numbered 5 through 7. The number denotes the charge; the higher the number, the longer the range. FDC determined the charge for indirect fire (aiming and firing without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target) primarily based on the range to target. For direct fire (aiming and firing with a direct line of sight between the gun and its target), they would use the highest charge to get the maximum effect. The angle of fire (high-angle or low-angle) also helped determine the charge, based on the range.
Notice the overlap in charge 5 (Green bag and White bag). A charge 5 White bag was only used in an emergency, since once it was used, charges 6 and 7 were useless and had to be destroyed. There was also range overlap for each adjacent charge. For example, you could hit certain ranges with either 1 or 2; 3 or 4, etc. The lowest charge possible was used to reduce wear and tear on the howitzer (and the ears of the cannoneers).
Q. How long was the tube on the 175mm?
A.(Courtesy of Tom McNeight)
"Regarding length of the barrel. Both Wikipedia and Military-Today.comstate the length of the barrel is 60 Calibers. Caliber in tube length is a derivative of Navy guns. To arrive at the length in inches you multiply the bore in inches by the caliber. So 175 mm converts to 6.88976 inches: therefore 6.88976 x 60 calibers = 413.3856 inches or 34.4488 feet.
I have found other historical references like the one below “The Big Guns of Camp Carrol” which state the length of the 175mm barrel at 34 feet – validating the calculation above.
I have found another length of the entire gun on the 2/94 website. It gives the length of the “tube” as 413 inches (60 calibers) – as my calculation; but gives the length of the “cannon” as 35’ 8”. I think the tube length is probably correct. If I recall correctly, which might a stretch at this age, there was about another 2-3 feet behind the breech (refer to attached photo) to the back of the carriage that may account for the difference between 34 feet and 36 feet. So I think the 35’ 8” probably refers to the back of the carriage and the 36’ 11” refers to the back of the spade."
Q. How long was the tube on the 8-inch howitzer?
A.(Courtesy of Tom McNeight)
"Found two references to the 8” SP M110 having a barrel length of 25 calibers. Therefore 25 x 8” = 200 inches or 16.67 feet. I assume that includes the muzzle brake."
Q. How were the guns adjusted for the target?
A. The fine-tuning came into play by slight addition or subtraction of tube angle to adjust for small distance variation. The howitzer had a panoramic telescope with 6400 mils so adjustments were in mills instead of degrees (360) to more fine-tune the process. A Collimator replaced the aiming post in 1969, which looked like a little telescope and had a light with many numbers it. FDC would give the gunner one number to look for after the gun was laid, looking from one telescope to another which further fine tuned the quadrant (up and down) as well as the deflection (6400 mils).
Click here for information describing the use of the Collimator and click here for follow-up information on this subject.
Q. What role did the Fire Direction Center (FDC) play?
A. When a fire mission was received by the firing battery from a forward observer, the Battery FDC contacted the Battalion FDC who, in turn, would contact Division or Corps Artillery Headquarters for permission to fire on the target. Once permission from higher headquarters was received, both the Battery and Battalion FDC would prepare firing data from the adjusting gun to the target. FDC’s data included the direction to set the tube in mils, the quadrant (elevation plus or minus the difference in altitude between the gun and target) the tube was to be elevated, and the powder charge to be used in the mission. Once both Battery and Battalion FDC’s agreed on the data, the information was sent to the gun to fire on the target.
After the round hit in the target area, the FO (Forward Observer) or AO (Aerial Observer) would adjust the impact of the following round by telling the FDC to add or drop, and/or move the impact right or left. This procedure would continue as the FDC’s refined the data to place the round on target. When a round impacted within 50 meters of the target, the FO/AO would make a final adjustment and request the unit Fire for Effect.
For observed fire, a forward observer (FO) or aerial observer (AO) would send a fire mission to the FDC. The fire mission consisted of the target location, type of target (e.g., personnel in the open, personnel in bunkers, wheel vehicles, tanks, and the like), and the ‘attitude’ to the target. The attitude was the direction to the target from the observer’s perspective. The observer would also provide other information, such as “danger close” if friendly troops were close to the target.
Using this information, the Fire Direction Officer (FDO) would issue a fire order to the FDC. The fire order usually consisted of the type of shell and fuse to use; the ‘base piece’ to use for adjustment; and the number of rounds to fire during Fire-for-Effect (FFE). Using the data provided by the observer and the fire order, the FDC entered the targeting information into the Field Artillery Digital Automatic Computer (FADAC). The FADAC provided the azimuth to target, deflection, quadrant, charge, and, if any, fuse setting usually within 30 to 45 seconds. The FADAC was quick and accurate provided it was setup properly and the targeting information was entered correctly.
As a manual backup, the FDC also plotted the targeting information on the Horizontal Chart to determine the azimuth, range, and direction to the target and on the map to determine the target altitude. Using the range and direction to target, the FDC calculated the elevation and deflection. Using the altitude, the FDC computed the ‘site’ to the target. When the FDC computed the data manually, the FDC used a Graphical Site Table (GST) to determine the elevation in mils to the target. A Site Table was used to determine the ‘site’ in mils, which was used to compensate for any difference in target altitude (height above or below the guns). The ‘site’ was added or subtracted from the GST elevation to determine the quadrant; corrections were also applied to the deflection before fire commands were sent to gun.
FDC would calculate the ballistic solution needed for a given target and send fire commands to the “base piece.” In an 8-inch or 175-mm battery, the base piece was either gun 3 or gun 4. In a 105-mm or 155-mm battery, commands were sent to a platoon of guns, normally guns 3 and 4. Fire commands consisted of the type of shell, fuse, charge, deflection, and quadrant, and any special instructions. Once the gun reported “ready,” the FDC sent the command to fire. For observed fire, the observer would send target corrections to the FDC. FDC would recalculate the ballistic solution; send new fire commands – usually a new deflection and quadrant - to the base piece; and once ready, FDC would send the command to fire. This process repeated itself until the rounds were on target. Once on target, an order was given to Fire for Effect (FFE). During FFE, all guns fired one or more volleys on the target using the same “data” and each gun reported “round complete” when finished.
FDC used a special type of shell for ‘soft’ targets such as personnel in the open called the “fire cracker” round. The firecracker round, controlled by a time fuse, had 108 grenades (bomblets) inside the shell. The round was fired at a high quadrant so that it would drop its ordinance about 400 meters above the target. The back of the round would pop off and the 108 bomblets would fall towards the ground. Each bomblet has a pair of metal wings that would open to slow and control the fall. Once the bomblet struck the ground, it would bounce up approximately 6 feet and explode. This was an extremely lethal weapon in Viet Nam. One major consideration for the FDC was to ensure this round was NOT fired near friendly troops because sometimes the bomblets would get hung in dense foliage or not immediately detonate. Friendly troops entering such an area might be harmed by unexploded ordinance.
The 8-inch and 175 mm howitzers had a max deflection of 533 mils left or right. As a result, FDC would normally require the gun to lay on a different azimuth if the deflection to target were greater than 400 mils left or right. This was to reduce the strain on the gun’s carriage and hydraulic systems.
8-inch gun M1
The 8-inch gun M1 was a 203 mm towed heavy gun developed in the United States. At 32,584 m (35,635 yd), it had the longest range of any US Army field artillery weapon in World War II. It was also used in small numbers by the British Army.
Development and production
In 1919, the Westervelt Board described the ideal heavy gun for future development having a bore of 194 mm to 8 inches, a projectile of about 200 lbs in weight, and a range of 35,000 yards. More striking was the requirement that it be road transportable. At this time no other country had such a road-transportable field gun. Low-priority design work occurred until 1924. Serious development began in June 1940 of an 8-inch (203 mm) gun that would have a range of 33,500 yards (30,600 m), a road speed of 25 mph (40 km/h), be transported in two loads weighing no more than 44,000 lb (20,000 kg) and be suitable for rail movement. The gun used the same projectile as the 8-inch coastal gun and the US Navy's 8-inch cruiser gun. Using the same carriage as the 240 mm howitzer M1 eased development, but the gun was very troublesome and was not standardized until January 1942. The main problems were excessive bore wear and poor accuracy, but it was felt that nothing better could be produced in a timely manner. Thus it entered production at a low rate and in small numbers. The gun tube was produced by Watervliet Arsenal, and the recoil system was produced by Hannifin Manufacturing. Watertown Arsenal, Bucyrus-Erie, and the S. Morgan Smith Company manufactured the carriage. Only 139 weapon systems were produced before production ceased in 1945.
In the quest for greater tactical mobility, the Ordnance Department experimented with a self-propelled version. Like the 240 mm howitzer, it was mounted on a stretched Heavy Tank T26E3 chassis that had an extra bogie wheel per side as the 8in Gun Motor Carriage T93, but the war ended before they could be used, and they were later scrapped.
One of the requirements during development was that the gun be easy to emplace. Given the weight of the gun and carriage, this was a challenge. Eventually, a pair of three-axle, six-wheeled transport wagons were developed – one for the barrel and recoil mechanism, and one for the carriage. These transport wagons were also used with the 240 mm howitzer. These were standardized as the M2 and M3. The M2 wagon carried the carriage and the M3 wagon carried the barrel and recoil system as shown to the left. This separate configuration required the use of the 20-ton M2 truck-mounted crane for setup. The crane also included a clam-shell bucket that was transported on a trailer and used to dig the recoil pit for the gun. In spite of the weight and being transported in two pieces, the gun could be emplaced in as little as two hours.
The transport wagons were initially intended to be towed by the Mack NO 7+1⁄2-ton heavy truck. Because the truck was a wheeled vehicle, it had problems in soft ground such as mud because its ground pressure was high. The M6 High Speed Tractor, a tracked vehicle which was explicitly designed for towing the 8-inch gun and 240 mm howitzer was not yet in production, so the Ordnance Department improvised in the meantime. M3 Lee medium tanks and M10 tank destroyers were quickly modified and tested. These proved to be satisfactory and were adopted for use as the M33 and M35, respectively.
The gun was assigned to non-divisional battalions, eight of which were eventually organized, trained and equipped. Each consisted of six guns, organized into three batteries of two gun sections each. Five battalions saw service in Europe or Italy (153rd, 243rd, 256th, 268th, and 575th) and three in the Pacific (570th, 573rd, and 780th). They first saw action in Italy in April 1944 at the Anzio beachhead when Battery B of the 575th Field Artillery Battalion was attached to the 698th Field Artillery Battalion. Battery A of the 575th also went to the Cassino front attached to the 697th Field Artillery Battalion, and was used in the counter-battery role against long-range German 170 mm guns. By September 1944, the 8-inch guns of the 575th had been withdrawn from Italy, and soon saw action in Europe where they were particularly effective against fortified targets and in counter-battery fire against German long-range artillery. At St. Malo, France, two battalions of 8-inch guns participated in the siege. The 8-inch guns scored direct hits on the walls of the ancient citadel. In the Siegfried Line campaign, the 8-inch guns, adjusted by aerial observers, knocked out two bridges over the Roer River. At the end of the war, the battalions were deactivated and the guns moved into storage; however, they were never again used in action and eventually disposed.
Seventeen guns were supplied to Great Britain.
The gun fired separate loading ammunition with two increments. M9 Green Bag propellant was used for medium ranges and was preferred for improved accuracy and reduced barrel erosion. M10 White Bag was used for long- and extreme-range firing. Only two fuses were used: M51A3 point detonating (and delay), and M67A3 mechanical time. Range and muzzle velocity below are for maximum charge of M10 White Bag.
|M9||34.47 kg |
|Base charge and one increment|
|M10||48.12 kg |
|Base charge and one increment|
|HE||HE M103 Shell||108.86 kg |
|TNT, 9.52 kg |
|868 m/s |
|32,584 m |
|Drill||Dummy M13||108.86 kg |
Only three examples are known to have survived. They are located at:
- 45th Infantry Division Museum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
- US Army Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, Oklahoma
- US Army Ordnance Museum, Fort Lee, Virginia
- ^A Board of Officers (1919). The Report of the Westervelt Board. Morris Swett Library: The War Department. p. 30.
- ^ abSchreier, Konrad F. (1994). Standard guide to U.S. World War II tanks & artillery. Krause Publications. p. 104. ISBN . OCLC 31007442.
- ^Williford, Glen M. (2016). American breechloading mobile artillery 1875-1953 : an illustrated identification guide. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. p. 176. ISBN . OCLC 927401960.
- ^Steve., Zaloga (2007). U S field artillery of World War II. Osprey Pub. p. 34. ISBN . OCLC 123895340.
- ^Stanton, Shelby L. (1984). Order of battle, U.S. Army, World War II. Presidio. pp. 401, 404, 405, 414. ISBN . OCLC 10727063.
- ^Williams, Captain Colin J. (July–August 2003). "Saved by Artillery: How MG Lucas Lost the Initiative at Anzio and the Allied Artillery Regained It". Field Artillery Journal.
- ^ abMayo, Lida (1991). The Ordnance Department: On Beachhead and Battlefron. Washington, DC: Center of Military History United States Army. pp. 266–267, 326.
- ^Zaloga, Steven J. (2007). U S field artillery of World War II. Osprey Pub. p. 37. ISBN . OCLC 123895340.
- ^ abTechnical Manual TM9-1901 Artillery Ammunition. War Department. 1944. pp. 312–313, 206–207, 376.
- Hogg, Ian V. (1998). Allied Artillery of World War Two. Greenhill Books. ISBN .
- Hogg, Ian V. The Guns, 1939-45. New York: Ballantine Books, 1970 ISBN 0019067100
- Schreier Jr., Konrad F. – Standard guide to U.S. World War II Tanks & Artillery (1994) Krause Publications, ISBN 0-87341-297-4.
- Williford, Glen M (2016). American Breechloading Mobile Artillery 1875-1953. Thomas D. Batha. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. ISBN .
- Zaloga, Steven J. (2007). US Field Artillery of World War II. New Vanguard 131. illustrated by Brian Delf. Osprey Publishing. ISBN .
- Technical Manual TM9-2300 Standard Artillery and fire Control Material. (dated February 1944)
- Technical Manual TM9-336 8-inch Gun M1 and Carriage M2. War Dept. Nov. 1943
- Field Manual FM6-95 Service of the Piece 8-Inch Gun M! and 240-MM Howitzer M1. War Department. Feb 1946
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 8in Gun M1.|
For other uses, see M115 (disambiguation).
|M115 203 mm howitzer|
A M-115 203 mm howitzer on display at Bastrop, Texas, United States.
|Place of origin||United States|
|No. built||1,006 |
|Mass||14,515 kg (31,780 lbs)|
|Length||Travel: 10.972 m (36 ft 0 in)|
|Barrel length||5.1 m (16 ft 9 in) L/25|
|Width||Travel: 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in)|
|Height||Travel: 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in)|
|Shell||Separate loading charge and projectile 90.7 kg (200 lb)|
|Caliber||203 mm (8 in)|
|Elevation||−2° to +65°|
|Rate of fire|
3 rounds per 2 minutes (maximum for first 3 minutes),
1 round per 2 minutes (sustained) 
|Muzzle velocity||587 m/s (1,926 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||16,800 m (18,373 yds)|
The M115 203 mm howitzer, also known as the M115 8 inch howitzer, and originally 8 inch Howitzer M1 was a towed howitzer developed and used by the United States Army.
Until 1962, it was designated the 8 inch Howitzer M1. The original design started in 1919, but lapsed until resurrected in 1927 as a partner piece for a new 155 mm gun. It was standardized as 8 inch Howitzer M1 in 1940. The M1 was towed by the M35 Prime Mover gun tractor or a Mack 7⅓ ton 6×6 truck.
Like the British BL 8-inch Howitzer of the First World War (and most other large artillery), the M115 uses a Welin screw for its breech. The carriage was the same as used for the US 155 mm gun and was also adopted by the British for their BL 7.2-inch howitzer. It consists of a split trail with equilibrator assemblies, elevating and traversing mechanisms, a two-axle bogie with eight tires, and a single-wheel, single-axle heavy limber for towing. Four spades, carried on the trails, are used to emplace the weapon. The British 8 inch howitzer was produced in England and under license in the US, for the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I, as the 8" Howitzer Mk. VI. It was in service with the US Army till replaced by the M115. There are no reports of the Mk. VI or other marks being used during World War II.
The first photos of the M1 type 8 inch howitzer on its redesigned carriage appeared in 1931, but development was slowed by the Great Depression.
The M1 saw U.S. service in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. In the late 1950s, it was adopted in small numbers by several NATO armies, to fire the W33 (M422/M422A1 shell) and later the W79nuclear artillery shell, under the NATO nuclear sharing concept, a role which ended when the smallest types of tactical nuclear weapons were removed from service and eliminated. It was also adopted as a field weapon by a number of nations in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia and saw service in the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis and the Croatian War of Independence.
- The howitzer was mounted on a modified M4 medium tank chassis, in mount M17. The resulting vehicle was initially designated 8 inch Howitzer Motor Carriage T89 and eventually standardized as the 8 inch Howitzer Motor Carriage M43. A total of 48 units were built.
- 8 inch Howitzer Motor Carriage T80 – based on T23 Medium Tank chassis, never advanced past proposal stage.
- 8 inch Howitzer Motor Carriage T84 – based on T26 Medium Tank chassis, a single pilot was built in 1945.
- The howitzer was mounted on a purpose-built tracked chassis to become the 8 inch Self-Propelled Howitzer M110. Notably accuracy and rate of fire suffered from having to depress the cannon tube to loading elevation for each round in order to use the track-mounted auto loader.
The howitzer fired separate loading, bagged charge ammunition, with seven different propelling charges, from 1 (the smallest) to 7 (the largest).
|HE||HE M106 Shell (charge M2)||90.7 kg (200 lb)||594 m/s (1,950 ft/s)||16,926 m (11 mi)|
|HE||HE Mk 1A1 Shell (charge M1)||90.7 kg (200 lb)||408 m/s (1,340 ft/s)||10,214 m (6.3 mi)|
|Dummy||Dummy Mk 1 Projectile||—||—||—|
|Nuclear||M442 (W33) nuclear shell||—||—||18,000 m (11 mi)|
|M1 ("green bag")||6.3 kg (13 lb 14 oz)||Five incremental charges (for charges 1 to 5)|
|M2 ("white bag")||13.56 kg (29 lb 14 oz)||Base charge and two incremental charges (for charges 5 to 7)|
|M4 (dummy)||13.04 kg (28 lb 12 oz)||Base charge and two incremental charges|
|Ammunition / Distance||2,743 mm (9 ft)||4,572 mm (20 ft)||9,144 mm (30 ft)||13,716 mm (50 ft)|
|HE M106 Shell (meet angle 0°)||1,432 mm (4 ft 8 in)||1,219 mm (4 ft)||975 mm (3 ft 2 in)||945 mm (3 ft 1 in)|
- ^Official Munitions Production of the United States, by Months, July 1, 1940 - August 31, 1945 (War Production Board and Civilian Production Administration, 1 May 1947) p. 137
- ^ abcdFoss, Christopher (1977). Jane's pocket book of towed artillery. New York: Collier. p. 141. ISBN . OCLC 911907988.
- ^US Army manual TM 9-2005, December 1942Archived 2010-07-14 at the Wayback Machine Page 79
- ^"First Mile A Minute Army", October 1931, Popular Science photo bottom of page 53
- ^ abcdefWiener, Friedrich (1987). The armies of the NATO nations: Organization, concept of war, weapons and equipment. Truppendienst Handbooks Volume 3. Vienna: Herold Publishers. pp. 499–500.
- ^ Xavier Palson, La guerre de demain : Est/Ouest, Les forces en présence, Taillandier, april 1984, 258 p. ISBN 2235016006, p. 116.
- ^Hunnicutt - Sherman: A History of the American Medium Tank, pp. 353–355, 571.
- ^Hunnicutt - Pershing, A History of the Medium Tank T20 Series, p. 158.
- ^Hunnicutt - Pershing, A History of the Medium Tank T20 Series, p. 159.
- ^Technical Manual TM 9-1901, Artillery Ammunition, pp. 203–205.
- ^"W33". Global Security. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- ^Technical Manual TM 9-1901, Artillery Ammunition, p 301, 311.
- ^Hunnicutt - Sherman: A History of the American Medium Tank, p 571.
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Shell 8 inch artillery
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